Veritasium

Veritasium

Veritasium

An element of truth - videos about science, education, and anything else I find interesting.

The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained

 Spinning objects have strange instabilities known as The Dzhanibekov Effect or Tennis Racket Theorem - this video offers an intuitive explanation. Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: ve42.co/LP References: Prof. Terry Tao's Math Overflow Explanation: ve42.co/Tao The Twisting Tennis Racket Ashbaugh, M.S., Chicone, C.C. & Cushman, R.H. J Dyn Diff Equat (1991) 3: 67. doi.org/10.1007/BF01049489 Janibekov’s effect and the laws of mechanics Petrov, A.G. & Volodin, S.E. Dokl. Phys. (2013) 58: 349. doi.org/10.1134/S1028335813080041 Tumbling Asteroids Prave et al. doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.021 The Exact Computation of the Free Rigid Body Motion and Its Use in Splitting Methods SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 30(4), 2084-2112 E. Celledoni, F. Fassò, N. Säfström, and A. Zanna doi.org/10.1137/070704393 Animations by Iván Tello and Isaac Frame Special thanks to people who discussed this video with me: Astronaut Don Pettit Henry Reich of MinutePhysics Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown Vert Dider (Russian CH-me channel) Below is a further discussion by Henry Reich that I think helps summarize why axes 1 and 3 are generally stable while axis 2 is not: In general, you might imagine that because the object can rotate in a bunch of different directions, the components of energy and momentum could be free to change while keeping the total momentum constant. However, in the case of axis 1, the kinetic energy is the highest possible for a given angular momentum, and in the case of axis 3, the kinetic energy is the lowest possible for a given angular momentum (which can be easily shown from conservation of energy and momentum equations, and is also fairly intuitive from the fact that kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared, while momentum is proportional to velocity - so in the case of axis 1, the smaller masses will have to be spinning faster for a given momentum, and will thus have more energy, and vice versa for axis 3 where all the masses are spinning: the energy will be lowest). In fact, this is a strict inequality - if the energy is highest possible, there are no other possible combinations of momenta other than L2=L3=0, and vice versa for if the energy is the lowest possible. Because of this, in the case of axis 1 the energy is so high that there simply aren't any other possible combinations of angular momentum components L1, L2 and L3 - the object would have to lose energy in order to spin differently. And in the case of axis 3, the energy is so low that there likewise is no way for the object to be rotating other than purely around axis 3 - it would have to gain energy. However, there's no such constraint for axis 2, since the energy is somewhere in between the min and max possible. This, together with the centrifugal effects, means that the components of momentum DO change.

The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained

 Před 3 dny

 Spinning objects have strange instabilities known as The Dzhanibekov Effect or Tennis Racket Theorem - this video offers an intuitive explanation. Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: ve42.co/LP References: Prof. Terry Tao's Math Overflow Explanation: ve42.co/Tao The Twisting Tennis Racket Ashbaugh, M.S., Chicone, C.C. & Cushman, R.H. J Dyn Diff Equat (1991) 3: 67. doi.org/10.1007/BF01049489 Janibekov’s effect and the laws of mechanics Petrov, A.G. & Volodin, S.E. Dokl. Phys. (2013) 58: 349. doi.org/10.1134/S1028335813080041 Tumbling Asteroids Prave et al. doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.021 The Exact Computation of the Free Rigid Body Motion and Its Use in Splitting Methods SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 30(4), 2084-2112 E. Celledoni, F. Fassò, N. Säfström, and A. Zanna doi.org/10.1137/070704393 Animations by Iván Tello and Isaac Frame Special thanks to people who discussed this video with me: Astronaut Don Pettit Henry Reich of MinutePhysics Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown Vert Dider (Russian CH-me channel) Below is a further discussion by Henry Reich that I think helps summarize why axes 1 and 3 are generally stable while axis 2 is not: In general, you might imagine that because the object can rotate in a bunch of different directions, the components of energy and momentum could be free to change while keeping the total momentum constant. However, in the case of axis 1, the kinetic energy is the highest possible for a given angular momentum, and in the case of axis 3, the kinetic energy is the lowest possible for a given angular momentum (which can be easily shown from conservation of energy and momentum equations, and is also fairly intuitive from the fact that kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared, while momentum is proportional to velocity - so in the case of axis 1, the smaller masses will have to be spinning faster for a given momentum, and will thus have more energy, and vice versa for axis 3 where all the masses are spinning: the energy will be lowest). In fact, this is a strict inequality - if the energy is highest possible, there are no other possible combinations of momenta other than L2=L3=0, and vice versa for if the energy is the lowest possible. Because of this, in the case of axis 1 the energy is so high that there simply aren't any other possible combinations of angular momentum components L1, L2 and L3 - the object would have to lose energy in order to spin differently. And in the case of axis 3, the energy is so low that there likewise is no way for the object to be rotating other than purely around axis 3 - it would have to gain energy. However, there's no such constraint for axis 2, since the energy is somewhere in between the min and max possible. This, together with the centrifugal effects, means that the components of momentum DO change.

Does Planet 9 Exist?

 A planet has been predicted to orbit the sun with a period of 10,000 years, a mass 5x that of Earth on a highly elliptical and inclined orbit. What evidence supports the existence of such a strange object at the edge of our solar system? Huge thanks to: Prof. Konstantin Batygin, Caltech Prof. David Jewitt, UCLA I had heard about Planet 9 for a long time but I wondered what sort of evidence could support the bold claim: a planet at the very limits of our ability to detect one, so far out that its period is over 60 times that of Neptune. The planet 9 hypothesis helps explain clustering of orbits of distant Kuiper belt objects. It also explains how some of these objects have highly inclined orbits - up to 90 degrees relative to the plane of the solar system. Some are orbiting in reverse. Plus their orbits are removed from the orbit of Neptune, the logical option for a body that could have ejected them out so far. The fact that the perihelion is so far out suggests another source of gravity was essential for their peculiar orbits. Special Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, DALE HORNE, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Noel Braganza, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman Music from epidemicsound.com "Observations - From Now On" "Magnified XY"

Does Planet 9 Exist?

 Před 8 dny

 A planet has been predicted to orbit the sun with a period of 10,000 years, a mass 5x that of Earth on a highly elliptical and inclined orbit. What evidence supports the existence of such a strange object at the edge of our solar system? Huge thanks to: Prof. Konstantin Batygin, Caltech Prof. David Jewitt, UCLA I had heard about Planet 9 for a long time but I wondered what sort of evidence could support the bold claim: a planet at the very limits of our ability to detect one, so far out that its period is over 60 times that of Neptune. The planet 9 hypothesis helps explain clustering of orbits of distant Kuiper belt objects. It also explains how some of these objects have highly inclined orbits - up to 90 degrees relative to the plane of the solar system. Some are orbiting in reverse. Plus their orbits are removed from the orbit of Neptune, the logical option for a body that could have ejected them out so far. The fact that the perihelion is so far out suggests another source of gravity was essential for their peculiar orbits. Special Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, DALE HORNE, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Noel Braganza, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman Music from epidemicsound.com "Observations - From Now On" "Magnified XY"

Flamethrower vs Aerogel

 We put aerogel to the test vs 'not-a-flamethrower', a huge 2000°C flame to a large fiberglass blanket infused with silica aerogel - formerly the lightest solid (that title is now held by graphene aerogel). Special thanks to: Aerogel Technologies: ve42.co/aerogeltech Aspen Aerogels: ve42.co/aspen Ben: @BenScho999999 Dr. Stephen Steiner and the Aerogel Technologies team The footage of aerogel materials in cold environments was provided courtesy of Aspen Aerogels. Their product, cryogel, was shown to be flexible in liquid nitrogen while preventing cold burns to the hand. They are the manufacturer of the blanket used in the main portion of this video. This is the finale of my three-part series on aerogel. I'll put links to the other parts below: World's Lightest Solid: ch-me.org/videos/video-AeJ9q45PfD0.html I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel: ch-me.org/videos/video-GcdB5bFwio4.html Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Dale Horne, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Noel Braganza, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman This is an educational video demonstrating scientific experiments performed by professionals. It should not be attempted by viewers. Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com "Running Against the Clock" "Dangerous Forests"

Flamethrower vs Aerogel

 Před 21 dnem

 We put aerogel to the test vs 'not-a-flamethrower', a huge 2000°C flame to a large fiberglass blanket infused with silica aerogel - formerly the lightest solid (that title is now held by graphene aerogel). Special thanks to: Aerogel Technologies: ve42.co/aerogeltech Aspen Aerogels: ve42.co/aspen Ben: @BenScho999999 Dr. Stephen Steiner and the Aerogel Technologies team The footage of aerogel materials in cold environments was provided courtesy of Aspen Aerogels. Their product, cryogel, was shown to be flexible in liquid nitrogen while preventing cold burns to the hand. They are the manufacturer of the blanket used in the main portion of this video. This is the finale of my three-part series on aerogel. I'll put links to the other parts below: World's Lightest Solid: ch-me.org/videos/video-AeJ9q45PfD0.html I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel: ch-me.org/videos/video-GcdB5bFwio4.html Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Dale Horne, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Noel Braganza, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman This is an educational video demonstrating scientific experiments performed by professionals. It should not be attempted by viewers. Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com "Running Against the Clock" "Dangerous Forests"

Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch!

 I used a nitrogen membrane and Stirling cryocooler to liquefy nitrogen out of the air. For this video I partnered with Starbucks to celebrate their Nitro Cold Brew. Order one here: starbucks.app.link/derekmuller Making liquid nitrogen is hard - in fact up until 150 years ago scientists doubted whether it was even possible to liquefy nitrogen. In 1823, At the royal institution in London, Michael Faraday first produced liquid chlorine, kind of accidentally by putting it under high pressure. He similarly liquefied ammonia. Borrowing a mixture from Thilorier in France, a combination of dry ice, snow and ether, he reached a temperature of -110C. By 1845 he used this mixture plus a hand pump to pressurize gases to liquefy all the known gases except six, which included oxygen and nitrogen. These became known as the “permanent” gases. A French Physicist Aimé compressed oxygen and nitrogen in tanks and then lowered them into the ocean over 1.6km deep, where the pressure got up to 200 atmospheres. Still the gases didn’t liquefy. Only at the end of 1877 were the first droplets of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen produced, by Cailletet in France. He first tried oxygen by compressing it up to 300 atmospheres, cooled to -30C, but that wasn't even enough to liquefy oxygen. But when he suddenly released the pressure, the expanding gas cooled, he estimated to -200C and he saw a mist and then droplets slide down the walls of his vessel. It's amazing how far we've come in that now I can purchase a helium-based cryocooler. It compresses and expands the gas to absorb heat from the tip of the cold finger and eject it into the surroundings at ambient temperature.

Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch!

 Před měsícem

 I used a nitrogen membrane and Stirling cryocooler to liquefy nitrogen out of the air. For this video I partnered with Starbucks to celebrate their Nitro Cold Brew. Order one here: starbucks.app.link/derekmuller Making liquid nitrogen is hard - in fact up until 150 years ago scientists doubted whether it was even possible to liquefy nitrogen. In 1823, At the royal institution in London, Michael Faraday first produced liquid chlorine, kind of accidentally by putting it under high pressure. He similarly liquefied ammonia. Borrowing a mixture from Thilorier in France, a combination of dry ice, snow and ether, he reached a temperature of -110C. By 1845 he used this mixture plus a hand pump to pressurize gases to liquefy all the known gases except six, which included oxygen and nitrogen. These became known as the “permanent” gases. A French Physicist Aimé compressed oxygen and nitrogen in tanks and then lowered them into the ocean over 1.6km deep, where the pressure got up to 200 atmospheres. Still the gases didn’t liquefy. Only at the end of 1877 were the first droplets of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen produced, by Cailletet in France. He first tried oxygen by compressing it up to 300 atmospheres, cooled to -30C, but that wasn't even enough to liquefy oxygen. But when he suddenly released the pressure, the expanding gas cooled, he estimated to -200C and he saw a mist and then droplets slide down the walls of his vessel. It's amazing how far we've come in that now I can purchase a helium-based cryocooler. It compresses and expands the gas to absorb heat from the tip of the cold finger and eject it into the surroundings at ambient temperature.

First Flight on Another Planet!

 The Mars Helicopter aims to make the first powered flight on another planet when it takes off on Mars as part of the Mars 2020 mission. I learned a lot getting to visit the drone right before it was mounted on the rover. How do you fly in 1% of Earth's atmosphere: Have large rotors (they are 1.2m in diameter) and spin them very fast, around 2500 RPM (5x the speed of a helicopter on Earth). Plus the aircraft has to be light: The Mars helicopter weighs in at 1.8kg or around the same as a laptop. Every piece had to be stripped down for weight. Instead of using aerogel for insulation, the craft makes use of CO2 gaps between components. Even aerogel was too heavy! One of the major challenges is surviving the Martian night: Temperatures plunge to -80C to -100C so two thirds of the craft's power is actually used to keep its electronics warm. Only one third is used for flying. The estimated flight time is 90 seconds. The craft can't be driven remotely, it will have to fly autonomously, using its own sensor suite to determine how to fly. The round trip 20 minute delay with Earth means steering the craft from mission control would be impossible. Huge Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Philipp Volgger, Chris Vargas, Ron Neal, Alfred Wallace, Colin Bellmore, Michael Krugman, James Knight, Donal Botkin, Sam Lutfi, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Kevin Beavers, Chuck Lauer Vose, Bryan Baker, James Wong, kkm, Manuel Zürcher, Tige Thorman, Jasper Xin, Leah Howard, Daniel Milum, Mathias Göransson, Stan Presolski, Lyvann Ferrusca, Arjun Chakroborty, June Kang, Listen Money Matters, Pindex, Joar Wandborg, DALE HORNE, Parker Linn, Roberto Rezende Jonny Hyman was a legend in editing, animation, filming, and sound design for this video.

First Flight on Another Planet!

 Před měsícem

 The Mars Helicopter aims to make the first powered flight on another planet when it takes off on Mars as part of the Mars 2020 mission. I learned a lot getting to visit the drone right before it was mounted on the rover. How do you fly in 1% of Earth's atmosphere: Have large rotors (they are 1.2m in diameter) and spin them very fast, around 2500 RPM (5x the speed of a helicopter on Earth). Plus the aircraft has to be light: The Mars helicopter weighs in at 1.8kg or around the same as a laptop. Every piece had to be stripped down for weight. Instead of using aerogel for insulation, the craft makes use of CO2 gaps between components. Even aerogel was too heavy! One of the major challenges is surviving the Martian night: Temperatures plunge to -80C to -100C so two thirds of the craft's power is actually used to keep its electronics warm. Only one third is used for flying. The estimated flight time is 90 seconds. The craft can't be driven remotely, it will have to fly autonomously, using its own sensor suite to determine how to fly. The round trip 20 minute delay with Earth means steering the craft from mission control would be impossible. Huge Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Philipp Volgger, Chris Vargas, Ron Neal, Alfred Wallace, Colin Bellmore, Michael Krugman, James Knight, Donal Botkin, Sam Lutfi, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Kevin Beavers, Chuck Lauer Vose, Bryan Baker, James Wong, kkm, Manuel Zürcher, Tige Thorman, Jasper Xin, Leah Howard, Daniel Milum, Mathias Göransson, Stan Presolski, Lyvann Ferrusca, Arjun Chakroborty, June Kang, Listen Money Matters, Pindex, Joar Wandborg, DALE HORNE, Parker Linn, Roberto Rezende Jonny Hyman was a legend in editing, animation, filming, and sound design for this video.

Why the Future of Cars is Electric

 Electric cars are now ready to take over thanks to advances in battery technology and their inherent benefits: torque, handling, maintenance. This video was sponsored by BMW: www.bmwusa.com/ Full disclosure: I drive an #electric #car. I think electric cars are the future, not mainly because they're better for the environment (which they are if you drive the car for any reasonable length of time) but because they are just better cars. The have better torque and acceleration, better handling, they're more efficient, quieter, they don't smell, they're cheaper to run and best of all you never have to visit a gas station - this appeals to me. I never have to worry about being low on gas because every morning my car is charged and ready to go - just like my phone and laptop. And if you're worried about range, don't. Almost all trips can already be done in an electric car with modest battery pack. And fast chargers along the way make it possible to do longer road trips if necessary. You have to make rest stops anyway, just time them with the charging. And consider that battery tech is getting dramatically cheaper, smaller, lighter. All these reasons are why I see the #future of cars as electric. Writing & Research Derek Muller Jonny Hyman Matthew Shribman ve42.co/sciencebath Editing, Animation, Audio, & Music: Jonny Hyman Camerawork: Raquel Nuno Jonny Hyman 1890s Music "National fantasie" by William Paris Chambers, archived in Library of Congress #BMWUSA #NEXTGen #BMWPartner #ad

Why the Future of Cars is Electric

 Před měsícem

 Electric cars are now ready to take over thanks to advances in battery technology and their inherent benefits: torque, handling, maintenance. This video was sponsored by BMW: www.bmwusa.com/ Full disclosure: I drive an #electric #car. I think electric cars are the future, not mainly because they're better for the environment (which they are if you drive the car for any reasonable length of time) but because they are just better cars. The have better torque and acceleration, better handling, they're more efficient, quieter, they don't smell, they're cheaper to run and best of all you never have to visit a gas station - this appeals to me. I never have to worry about being low on gas because every morning my car is charged and ready to go - just like my phone and laptop. And if you're worried about range, don't. Almost all trips can already be done in an electric car with modest battery pack. And fast chargers along the way make it possible to do longer road trips if necessary. You have to make rest stops anyway, just time them with the charging. And consider that battery tech is getting dramatically cheaper, smaller, lighter. All these reasons are why I see the #future of cars as electric. Writing & Research Derek Muller Jonny Hyman Matthew Shribman ve42.co/sciencebath Editing, Animation, Audio, & Music: Jonny Hyman Camerawork: Raquel Nuno Jonny Hyman 1890s Music "National fantasie" by William Paris Chambers, archived in Library of Congress #BMWUSA #NEXTGen #BMWPartner #ad

Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site

 Apollo astronauts trained in nuclear bomb craters at the Nevada National Security Site. But why?Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 I found this story fascinating because in a way a nuclear bomb crater is more like a meteorite impact site than an impact site itself. Consider: Barringer Crater was claimed to be a meteorite impact site but geologists dismissed it as a volcanic formation. It was only after studying nuclear bomb craters and the minerals found there that geologists concluded the energy and pressures that created Barringer Crater were too high to be from volcanic activity and therefore must have formed from a meteorite impact. Special Thanks to: Nevada National Security Site The National Atomic Testing Museum Jonny Hyman and Verse: ch-me.org/videos/video-7bUUGzi-AAY.html Active Galactic for footage of craters in Arizona: ch-me.org/videos/video-yhoooBpndog.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Daniel Milum, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, Illya Nayshevsky, James Knight, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Listen Money Matters, Lyvann Ferrusca, Manuel Zürcher, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, OddJosh, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Raquel Nuno Story and Editing by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Music and Animation by Jonny Hyman Produced by Casey Rentz

Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site

 Před 2 měsíci

 Apollo astronauts trained in nuclear bomb craters at the Nevada National Security Site. But why?Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 I found this story fascinating because in a way a nuclear bomb crater is more like a meteorite impact site than an impact site itself. Consider: Barringer Crater was claimed to be a meteorite impact site but geologists dismissed it as a volcanic formation. It was only after studying nuclear bomb craters and the minerals found there that geologists concluded the energy and pressures that created Barringer Crater were too high to be from volcanic activity and therefore must have formed from a meteorite impact. Special Thanks to: Nevada National Security Site The National Atomic Testing Museum Jonny Hyman and Verse: ch-me.org/videos/video-7bUUGzi-AAY.html Active Galactic for footage of craters in Arizona: ch-me.org/videos/video-yhoooBpndog.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Daniel Milum, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, Illya Nayshevsky, James Knight, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Listen Money Matters, Lyvann Ferrusca, Manuel Zürcher, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, OddJosh, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Raquel Nuno Story and Editing by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Music and Animation by Jonny Hyman Produced by Casey Rentz

How Cod Saved the Vikings

 The Vikings suffered many hardships living in the north of Europe: long, cold winters and importantly a lack of sunlight. Luckily, they had cod. Check out Vitamania: ve42.co/cod When making a video about vitamins I thought the story would mainly be about supplement pills, whether we should or shouldn't take them and how they're made. But what I found out is vitamins have a remarkable story that affects many more aspects of our lives. For example the Vikings needed a source of vitamin D to last the dark winter months and for their children to develop strong, healthy bones, avoiding rickets. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 This video was filmed by Harry Panagiotidis Researched and written by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Editing, animation and music by Jonny Hyman Cod liver oil animation by Iván Tello Vitamania was written, directed and produced by Sonya Pemberton

How Cod Saved the Vikings

 Před 2 měsíci

 The Vikings suffered many hardships living in the north of Europe: long, cold winters and importantly a lack of sunlight. Luckily, they had cod. Check out Vitamania: ve42.co/cod When making a video about vitamins I thought the story would mainly be about supplement pills, whether we should or shouldn't take them and how they're made. But what I found out is vitamins have a remarkable story that affects many more aspects of our lives. For example the Vikings needed a source of vitamin D to last the dark winter months and for their children to develop strong, healthy bones, avoiding rickets. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 This video was filmed by Harry Panagiotidis Researched and written by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Editing, animation and music by Jonny Hyman Cod liver oil animation by Iván Tello Vitamania was written, directed and produced by Sonya Pemberton

I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel!

 Aerogel has extraordinary properties but it can be tough to work with. This video looks at modifying aerogels to take advantage of their unique characteristics. Subscribe to Veritasium: ve42.co/sub Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! www.flir.com Aerogel’s extraordinary properties are due in large part to its structure. Aerogel is a solid but on the nanoscale it has a mesh or sponge-like structure. The struts of this structure are nanoscale, as are the pores at around 20nm across. This makes silica aerogel incredibly light (it was once the lightest solid but has now been superseded by graphene aerogel), transparent and adsorbent. An ice-cube sized piece of aerogel has an internal surface area roughly equal to half a football field. Aerogel is used in high end museum cases to regulate humidity. Plus it helps maintain the vacuum on the Mars Insight seismometers - it adsorbs moisture and other outgassed volatiles that come from the spacecraft itself. Proposed uses include as a physical insecticide by ‘drying out insects’ reducing the need for chemical and toxic pesticides. Special thanks to all my Patreon supporters especially those who contributed feedback to an earlier draft of this video: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Paul Gramaglia Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Animations by Catherine Chooljian Music from epidemicsound.com “Tonic Zone” “Betelgeuse” “Insidious Mice” “Seaweed” “It’s not that serious” “Platin00m - Sum It” This is an educational, scientific video.

I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel!

 Před 3 měsíci

 Aerogel has extraordinary properties but it can be tough to work with. This video looks at modifying aerogels to take advantage of their unique characteristics. Subscribe to Veritasium: ve42.co/sub Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! www.flir.com Aerogel’s extraordinary properties are due in large part to its structure. Aerogel is a solid but on the nanoscale it has a mesh or sponge-like structure. The struts of this structure are nanoscale, as are the pores at around 20nm across. This makes silica aerogel incredibly light (it was once the lightest solid but has now been superseded by graphene aerogel), transparent and adsorbent. An ice-cube sized piece of aerogel has an internal surface area roughly equal to half a football field. Aerogel is used in high end museum cases to regulate humidity. Plus it helps maintain the vacuum on the Mars Insight seismometers - it adsorbs moisture and other outgassed volatiles that come from the spacecraft itself. Proposed uses include as a physical insecticide by ‘drying out insects’ reducing the need for chemical and toxic pesticides. Special thanks to all my Patreon supporters especially those who contributed feedback to an earlier draft of this video: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Paul Gramaglia Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Animations by Catherine Chooljian Music from epidemicsound.com “Tonic Zone” “Betelgeuse” “Insidious Mice” “Seaweed” “It’s not that serious” “Platin00m - Sum It” This is an educational, scientific video.

Can You Swim in Shade Balls?

 I bought 10,000 shade balls and tried to swim in them. They appear to act like a non-Newtonian fluid: rigid under high shear stress, but they flow like a liquid under low shear. Get a signed shade ball by supporting Veritasium: ve42.co/patreon Receiving a shade ball: 1. Support Veritasium on any Patreon tier and enter your address ve42.co/patreon 2. In about a month I will send out signed shade balls 3. I will cover all shipping costs but if things get really crazy I will prioritize existing Patreon supporters and higher tiers My sense was that swimming in shade balls would be difficult but still doable. This was roughly true for the single layer of shade balls. The shade balls slide past each other so they act like a liquid, albeit a viscous one owing to their significant inertia. It's much more intense exercise and it's also annoying to be bombarded with shade balls on all sides of your body, particularly your head. With multi-layer shade balls (as exists on much of LA reservoir) things get significantly more difficult. The balls bunch together and when you try to move through them quickly, they become more rigid, providing significant resistance to motion. This has the benefit that you can lie on them and as long as they stay trapped under you, you can float on them. But a little bit of motion causes them to move around and you sink through quickly. Huge thanks to: Jordan Schnabel and Cristian Carretero for filming and swimming and providing lifeguard services. Raquel Nuno for filming and putting up with me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Music from epidemicsound.com "Dubstep Mammoth 2" "Finally Here (Instrumental)" "The Last Arrival" "Sundown Love (Instrumental)"

Can You Swim in Shade Balls?

 Před 3 měsíci

 I bought 10,000 shade balls and tried to swim in them. They appear to act like a non-Newtonian fluid: rigid under high shear stress, but they flow like a liquid under low shear. Get a signed shade ball by supporting Veritasium: ve42.co/patreon Receiving a shade ball: 1. Support Veritasium on any Patreon tier and enter your address ve42.co/patreon 2. In about a month I will send out signed shade balls 3. I will cover all shipping costs but if things get really crazy I will prioritize existing Patreon supporters and higher tiers My sense was that swimming in shade balls would be difficult but still doable. This was roughly true for the single layer of shade balls. The shade balls slide past each other so they act like a liquid, albeit a viscous one owing to their significant inertia. It's much more intense exercise and it's also annoying to be bombarded with shade balls on all sides of your body, particularly your head. With multi-layer shade balls (as exists on much of LA reservoir) things get significantly more difficult. The balls bunch together and when you try to move through them quickly, they become more rigid, providing significant resistance to motion. This has the benefit that you can lie on them and as long as they stay trapped under you, you can float on them. But a little bit of motion causes them to move around and you sink through quickly. Huge thanks to: Jordan Schnabel and Cristian Carretero for filming and swimming and providing lifeguard services. Raquel Nuno for filming and putting up with me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Music from epidemicsound.com "Dubstep Mammoth 2" "Finally Here (Instrumental)" "The Last Arrival" "Sundown Love (Instrumental)"

World's Lightest Solid!

 Aerogels are the world's lightest (least dense) solids. They are also excellent thermal insulators and have been used in numerous Mars missions and the Stardust comet particle-return mission. The focus of this video is silica aerogels, though graphene aerogels are now technically the lightest. At one point Dr. Steven Jones literally held the Guinness World Record for making the lightest aerogel and therefore lightest solid. If you're interested in learning more about aerogels, let me know in the comments as there is a potential trilogy in the works... Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! www.flir.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Filming by Raquel Nuno Animations by Maria Raykova Drawings by Mariel Solsberg Music From epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Swagger Stagger"

World's Lightest Solid!

 Před 3 měsíci

 Aerogels are the world's lightest (least dense) solids. They are also excellent thermal insulators and have been used in numerous Mars missions and the Stardust comet particle-return mission. The focus of this video is silica aerogels, though graphene aerogels are now technically the lightest. At one point Dr. Steven Jones literally held the Guinness World Record for making the lightest aerogel and therefore lightest solid. If you're interested in learning more about aerogels, let me know in the comments as there is a potential trilogy in the works... Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! www.flir.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Filming by Raquel Nuno Animations by Maria Raykova Drawings by Mariel Solsberg Music From epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Swagger Stagger"

My Video Went Viral. Here's Why

 My hypothesis is that the algorithm, rather than viewer preference, drives views on the site. As the algorithm shifts, various CH-mers experience burnout (as what used to work no longer works) and right now click-through rate is the key metric. So clickable titles and thumbnails are the only way to get a lot of impressions and hence views - they are the only way to go viral. This leads me to wonder which audiences will become most prevalent on the site and if there will even be a place for educational content. In the long-term, hopefully CH-me is able to measure satisfaction through surveys and other metrics to ensure an optimal experience for everyone on the site. Flipchart artwork by Maria Raykova Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci

My Video Went Viral. Here's Why

 Před 4 měsíci

 My hypothesis is that the algorithm, rather than viewer preference, drives views on the site. As the algorithm shifts, various CH-mers experience burnout (as what used to work no longer works) and right now click-through rate is the key metric. So clickable titles and thumbnails are the only way to get a lot of impressions and hence views - they are the only way to go viral. This leads me to wonder which audiences will become most prevalent on the site and if there will even be a place for educational content. In the long-term, hopefully CH-me is able to measure satisfaction through surveys and other metrics to ensure an optimal experience for everyone on the site. Flipchart artwork by Maria Raykova Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci

Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?

 I took a boat through 96 million black plastic balls on the Los Angeles reservoir to find out why they're there. The first time I heard about shade balls the claim was they reduce evaporation. But it turns out this isn't the reason they were introduced. Huge thanks to LADWP for arranging this special tour for me. Next time let's put the GoPro on the submersible! The balls are made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) which is less dense than water so they float on the surface of the reservoir even if they break apart. They are 10cm (4 inches) in diameter and contain about 210ml of water. So the main reason they are on the reservoir is to block sunlight from entering the water and triggering a chemical reaction that turns harmless bromide into carcinogenic bromate. This effect occurs with prolonged exposure to bromate so regulators insist that levels be kept below 10 microgram per liter on average over a 12 month period. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Thanks to: Las Virgenes Reservoir for footage of initial shade ball dump Euro-Matic for bird into jet-engine footage Researched and Produced by Casey Rentz Animations by Maria Raykova Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful Animation 4" "Seaweed" And from Kevin MacLeod "Marty Gots a Plan" This is an educational video about the science of water quality.

Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?

 Před 4 měsíci

 I took a boat through 96 million black plastic balls on the Los Angeles reservoir to find out why they're there. The first time I heard about shade balls the claim was they reduce evaporation. But it turns out this isn't the reason they were introduced. Huge thanks to LADWP for arranging this special tour for me. Next time let's put the GoPro on the submersible! The balls are made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) which is less dense than water so they float on the surface of the reservoir even if they break apart. They are 10cm (4 inches) in diameter and contain about 210ml of water. So the main reason they are on the reservoir is to block sunlight from entering the water and triggering a chemical reaction that turns harmless bromide into carcinogenic bromate. This effect occurs with prolonged exposure to bromate so regulators insist that levels be kept below 10 microgram per liter on average over a 12 month period. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Thanks to: Las Virgenes Reservoir for footage of initial shade ball dump Euro-Matic for bird into jet-engine footage Researched and Produced by Casey Rentz Animations by Maria Raykova Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful Animation 4" "Seaweed" And from Kevin MacLeod "Marty Gots a Plan" This is an educational video about the science of water quality.

Magnetic Micro-Robots

 Tiny robots activated by magnetic fields may be used in future biomedical procedures. Start listening to Audible with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook, plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 Huge thanks to: Dr. Eric Diller, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Toronto microrobotics.mie.utoronto.ca Research Referenced in this video: T. Xu, J. Zhang, M. Salehizadeh, O. Onaizah and E. Diller, Millimeter-scale flexible robots with programmable three-dimensional magnetization and motions. Science Robotics. 4, eaav4494 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav4494 H. Xie, M. Sun, X. Fan, Z. Lin, W. Chen, L. Wang, L. Dong, and Q. He, Reconfigurable magnetic microrobot swarm: Multimode transformation, locomotion, and manipulation. Science Robotics. 4, eaav8006 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav8006 G. Hwang, A. J. Paula, E. E. Hunter, Y. Liu, A. Babeer, B. Karabucak, K Stebe, V. Kumar, E. Steager, and H. Koo, Catalytic antimicrobial robots for biofilm eradication. Science Robotics. 4, eeaw2388 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aaw2388 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "March of the Spoons"

Magnetic Micro-Robots

 Před 4 měsíci

 Tiny robots activated by magnetic fields may be used in future biomedical procedures. Start listening to Audible with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook, plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 Huge thanks to: Dr. Eric Diller, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Toronto microrobotics.mie.utoronto.ca Research Referenced in this video: T. Xu, J. Zhang, M. Salehizadeh, O. Onaizah and E. Diller, Millimeter-scale flexible robots with programmable three-dimensional magnetization and motions. Science Robotics. 4, eaav4494 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav4494 H. Xie, M. Sun, X. Fan, Z. Lin, W. Chen, L. Wang, L. Dong, and Q. He, Reconfigurable magnetic microrobot swarm: Multimode transformation, locomotion, and manipulation. Science Robotics. 4, eaav8006 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav8006 G. Hwang, A. J. Paula, E. E. Hunter, Y. Liu, A. Babeer, B. Karabucak, K Stebe, V. Kumar, E. Steager, and H. Koo, Catalytic antimicrobial robots for biofilm eradication. Science Robotics. 4, eeaw2388 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aaw2388 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "March of the Spoons"

$250,000 for a High School Science Student

 The story of three impressive high school science projects. Can you guess which student won $250,000 in the #RegeneronSTS? Applications open June 1: bit.ly/2HkLXT1 This video was sponsored by Regeneron. The Science Talent Search was founded and produced by the Society for Science and the Public. Huge thanks to the students: Ronak Roy, Ana Humphrey, and Anjali Chadha. It was great getting to meet all of you and learn about your original scientific research. Special thanks to Assistant Professor Konstantin Batygin for discussing Ana's research and Planet 9 with me. More is coming on the Planet 9 front. Ronak came up with a new design for the phoropter, the device used to determine eye-glass prescriptions. It's basically been unchanged for 200 years. Using a liquid lens, he miniaturized the device and wrote an algorithm to determine your prescription. Ana used math and physics to search for hidden exoplanets. There are a number of reasons why the transit method and Kepler telescope may have missed them: they're too small, too inclined, or take too long to orbit and so were not seen. By considering which planetary systems have additional space for more planets, Ana came up with 560 locations where we may look again for planets in future. Anjali developed an internet enabled device for measuring arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The device performs several chemical reactions to release the arsenic into a measurable state. It then reacts the arsenic with a test strip to produce a color output. This color is sampled by a camera and processed to determine the concentration of arsenic in the water sample. This has significant potential applications around the world helping reduce exposure to arsenic and potentially other contaminants. Filming by Raquel Nuno

$250,000 for a High School Science Student

 Před 5 měsíci

 The story of three impressive high school science projects. Can you guess which student won $250,000 in the #RegeneronSTS? Applications open June 1: bit.ly/2HkLXT1 This video was sponsored by Regeneron. The Science Talent Search was founded and produced by the Society for Science and the Public. Huge thanks to the students: Ronak Roy, Ana Humphrey, and Anjali Chadha. It was great getting to meet all of you and learn about your original scientific research. Special thanks to Assistant Professor Konstantin Batygin for discussing Ana's research and Planet 9 with me. More is coming on the Planet 9 front. Ronak came up with a new design for the phoropter, the device used to determine eye-glass prescriptions. It's basically been unchanged for 200 years. Using a liquid lens, he miniaturized the device and wrote an algorithm to determine your prescription. Ana used math and physics to search for hidden exoplanets. There are a number of reasons why the transit method and Kepler telescope may have missed them: they're too small, too inclined, or take too long to orbit and so were not seen. By considering which planetary systems have additional space for more planets, Ana came up with 560 locations where we may look again for planets in future. Anjali developed an internet enabled device for measuring arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The device performs several chemical reactions to release the arsenic into a measurable state. It then reacts the arsenic with a test strip to produce a color output. This color is sampled by a camera and processed to determine the concentration of arsenic in the water sample. This has significant potential applications around the world helping reduce exposure to arsenic and potentially other contaminants. Filming by Raquel Nuno

First Image of a Black Hole!

 The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration observed the supermassive black hole at the center of M87, finding the dark central shadow in accordance with General Relativity, further demonstrating the power of this 100 year-old theory. To understand more about why the shadows look the way they do, check out: ch-me.org/videos/video-zUyH3XhpLTo.html I will continue updating this description with more links. Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: ve42.co/EHT Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-jvftAadCFRI.html Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-meOKmzhTcIY.html Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) ch-me.org/videos/video-VnsZj9RvhFU.html Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-Ame7fzBuFnk.html Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-XmvpKFSvB7A.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Scale animation by Maria Raykova

First Image of a Black Hole!

 Před 5 měsíci

 The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration observed the supermassive black hole at the center of M87, finding the dark central shadow in accordance with General Relativity, further demonstrating the power of this 100 year-old theory. To understand more about why the shadows look the way they do, check out: ch-me.org/videos/video-zUyH3XhpLTo.html I will continue updating this description with more links. Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: ve42.co/EHT Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-jvftAadCFRI.html Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-meOKmzhTcIY.html Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) ch-me.org/videos/video-VnsZj9RvhFU.html Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-Ame7fzBuFnk.html Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ch-me.org/videos/video-XmvpKFSvB7A.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Scale animation by Maria Raykova

How to Understand the Black Hole Image

 We have just seen the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87 with a mass 6.5 billion times that of our sun. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova

How to Understand the Black Hole Image

 Před 5 měsíci

 We have just seen the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87 with a mass 6.5 billion times that of our sun. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova

How Was Video Invented?

 I always wanted to know why film looked better than video. Moving electronic images have as long a history but were invented for a different purpose. This video was sponsored by B&H Photo: www.bhphotovideo.com Huge thanks to: Richard Diehl, Video Labguy ch-me.org/utitle-videolabguy www.labguysworld.com Branch Education for awesome animations ve42.co/BranchEd Minutephysics for mechanical TV animations ch-me.org/utitle-minutephysics Mark Schubin Engineer and explainer, SMPTE Life Fellow www.smpte.org This is a video I've long wanted to make, about what makes video look like video and, up until 10 years ago or so, not as appealing as film. I grew up with the two technologies (film and video) in parallel and to me they always seemed like two ways of achieving the same ends: recording and replaying moving images. But their histories are quite distinct. Film was always a way to capture moving images for later replaying. Video started out as a way to transfer images from one place to another instantaneously. This dates back to the first fax machine, mechanical TV, live broadcast tv and ultimately videotapes. This history focuses on the early decades of video and not the more recent switches to chip cameras and solid state storage. Maybe that's a story for another day. Additional resources and references: The Dawn of Tape: Transmission Device as Preservation Medium ve42.co/dawnoftape What Sparked Video Research in 1877? The Overlooked Role of the Siemens Artificial Eye ve42.co/sparkvideo Video Preservation Website: videopreservation.conservation-us.org Image Orthicon Tube: interiorcommunicationselectrician.tpub.com/14120/141200335.htm Film vs Digital stephenfollows.com/film-vs-digital/ Eyes of a Generation: eyesofageneration.com Television in the US: www3.northern.edu/wild/th100/tv.htm www.classictvinfo.com Music from www.epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Capture a Picture 1" "Colorful Animation 4"

How Was Video Invented?

 Před 5 měsíci

 I always wanted to know why film looked better than video. Moving electronic images have as long a history but were invented for a different purpose. This video was sponsored by B&H Photo: www.bhphotovideo.com Huge thanks to: Richard Diehl, Video Labguy ch-me.org/utitle-videolabguy www.labguysworld.com Branch Education for awesome animations ve42.co/BranchEd Minutephysics for mechanical TV animations ch-me.org/utitle-minutephysics Mark Schubin Engineer and explainer, SMPTE Life Fellow www.smpte.org This is a video I've long wanted to make, about what makes video look like video and, up until 10 years ago or so, not as appealing as film. I grew up with the two technologies (film and video) in parallel and to me they always seemed like two ways of achieving the same ends: recording and replaying moving images. But their histories are quite distinct. Film was always a way to capture moving images for later replaying. Video started out as a way to transfer images from one place to another instantaneously. This dates back to the first fax machine, mechanical TV, live broadcast tv and ultimately videotapes. This history focuses on the early decades of video and not the more recent switches to chip cameras and solid state storage. Maybe that's a story for another day. Additional resources and references: The Dawn of Tape: Transmission Device as Preservation Medium ve42.co/dawnoftape What Sparked Video Research in 1877? The Overlooked Role of the Siemens Artificial Eye ve42.co/sparkvideo Video Preservation Website: videopreservation.conservation-us.org Image Orthicon Tube: interiorcommunicationselectrician.tpub.com/14120/141200335.htm Film vs Digital stephenfollows.com/film-vs-digital/ Eyes of a Generation: eyesofageneration.com Television in the US: www3.northern.edu/wild/th100/tv.htm www.classictvinfo.com Music from www.epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Capture a Picture 1" "Colorful Animation 4"

Can Humans Sense Magnetic Fields?

 Research has found some human brains can pick up on rotations of geomagnetic-strength fields as evidenced by drops in alpha wave power following stimulus. For more, see ve42.co/magneto Huge thanks to: Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo, Connie Wang, and Isaac Hilburn, plus Prof. Joe Kirschvink. Their lab: ve42.co/maglab Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Additional filming by Whitney Clavin

Can Humans Sense Magnetic Fields?

 Před 6 měsíci

 Research has found some human brains can pick up on rotations of geomagnetic-strength fields as evidenced by drops in alpha wave power following stimulus. For more, see ve42.co/magneto Huge thanks to: Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo, Connie Wang, and Isaac Hilburn, plus Prof. Joe Kirschvink. Their lab: ve42.co/maglab Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Additional filming by Whitney Clavin

Why Machines That Bend Are Better

 Compliant mechanisms have lots of advantages over traditional devices. SimpliSafe is awesome security. It's really effective, easy to use, and the price is great. Check out SimpliSafe here: simplisafe.com/veritasium I visited the Compliant Mechanisms Research group at Brigham Young University and spoke to Professor Larry Howell: www.compliantmechanisms.byu.edu At the above link, you can download 3D-print files to make some of the objects in the video, plus learn more about compliant mechanisms. What I learned about compliant mechanisms I summarize in the 8 P's of compliant mechanisms: 1. Part count (reduced by having flexible parts instead of springs, hinges) 2. Productions processes (many, new, different enabled by compliant designs) 3. Price (reduced by fewer parts and different production processes) 4. Precise Motion (no backlash, less wear, friction) 5. Performance (no outgassing, doesn't require lubricant) 6. Proportions (reduced through different production processes) 7. Portability (lightweight due to simpler, reduced part count designs) 8. Predictability (devices are reliable over a long period of time) Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animation by Alan Chamberlain

Why Machines That Bend Are Better

 Před 6 měsíci

 Compliant mechanisms have lots of advantages over traditional devices. SimpliSafe is awesome security. It's really effective, easy to use, and the price is great. Check out SimpliSafe here: simplisafe.com/veritasium I visited the Compliant Mechanisms Research group at Brigham Young University and spoke to Professor Larry Howell: www.compliantmechanisms.byu.edu At the above link, you can download 3D-print files to make some of the objects in the video, plus learn more about compliant mechanisms. What I learned about compliant mechanisms I summarize in the 8 P's of compliant mechanisms: 1. Part count (reduced by having flexible parts instead of springs, hinges) 2. Productions processes (many, new, different enabled by compliant designs) 3. Price (reduced by fewer parts and different production processes) 4. Precise Motion (no backlash, less wear, friction) 5. Performance (no outgassing, doesn't require lubricant) 6. Proportions (reduced through different production processes) 7. Portability (lightweight due to simpler, reduced part count designs) 8. Predictability (devices are reliable over a long period of time) Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animation by Alan Chamberlain

Can You Recover Sound From Images?

 Is it possible to reconstruct sound from high-speed video images? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2SmRQkk Special thanks to Dr. Abe Davis for revisiting his research with me: abedavis.com This video was based on research by Dr. Abe Davis and colleagues. I found out about this work years ago and was fascinated by the way he was able to capture vibration information in image-only video. I always imagined the motions of objects would be visible as when recording a tuning fork in slow motion - so deriving sound from high speed images seemed a feasible task. But the reality is much more difficult. Sound vibrations only cause objects to wiggle by about a micrometer. This is much smaller than a pixel, so the algorithm must understand the characteristics of the image. A move in one direction should cause some pixels to lighten slightly, while others darken - and this behavior is correlated along the edges of the image. So noise can be reduced because it's random over the image and there are enough places to sample that you can get it to cancel out. Something I'm wondering now is - would it be possible to capture sound in a single image? I'm thinking it would have to be an image of a large object or space because the wavelengths of typical sounds are quite long. Maybe a high frequency sound could be imaged in a suitable medium... Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"

Can You Recover Sound From Images?

 Před 6 měsíci

 Is it possible to reconstruct sound from high-speed video images? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2SmRQkk Special thanks to Dr. Abe Davis for revisiting his research with me: abedavis.com This video was based on research by Dr. Abe Davis and colleagues. I found out about this work years ago and was fascinated by the way he was able to capture vibration information in image-only video. I always imagined the motions of objects would be visible as when recording a tuning fork in slow motion - so deriving sound from high speed images seemed a feasible task. But the reality is much more difficult. Sound vibrations only cause objects to wiggle by about a micrometer. This is much smaller than a pixel, so the algorithm must understand the characteristics of the image. A move in one direction should cause some pixels to lighten slightly, while others darken - and this behavior is correlated along the edges of the image. So noise can be reduced because it's random over the image and there are enough places to sample that you can get it to cancel out. Something I'm wondering now is - would it be possible to capture sound in a single image? I'm thinking it would have to be an image of a large object or space because the wavelengths of typical sounds are quite long. Maybe a high frequency sound could be imaged in a suitable medium... Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"

How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma

 A bisected grape in the microwave makes plasma. But how does it work? A grape is the right size and refractive index to trap microwaves inside it. When you place two (or two halves) close together the fields interact with each other creating a maximum of electromagnetic energy where they touch. This creates heating, sparks, and plasma, which is further fed with energy directly by the microwaves. Huge thanks to Hamza Khattak, Prof. Pablo Bianucci and Prof. Aaron Slepkov (unavailable for the call) for chatting to me and helping me understand the physics of this cool phenomenon. Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1818350116 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks also to Steve Bosi, my original plasma collaborator. Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"

How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma

 Před 7 měsíci

 A bisected grape in the microwave makes plasma. But how does it work? A grape is the right size and refractive index to trap microwaves inside it. When you place two (or two halves) close together the fields interact with each other creating a maximum of electromagnetic energy where they touch. This creates heating, sparks, and plasma, which is further fed with energy directly by the microwaves. Huge thanks to Hamza Khattak, Prof. Pablo Bianucci and Prof. Aaron Slepkov (unavailable for the call) for chatting to me and helping me understand the physics of this cool phenomenon. Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1818350116 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks also to Steve Bosi, my original plasma collaborator. Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"

Are Negative Ions Good For You?

 Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"

Are Negative Ions Good For You?

 Před 7 měsíci

 Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"

The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect

 Droplets levitate on a bath of liquid nitrogen and are spontaneously self-propelled. Thanks Audible! Start a 30-day trial and your first audiobook is free. Go to audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500. Special thanks to Dr. Anaïs Gauthier Physics of Fluids: pof.tnw.utwente.nl/ Self-propulsion of inverse Leidenfrost drops on a cryogenic bath Anaïs Gauthier, Christian Diddens, Rémi Proville, Detlef Lohse, and Devaraj van der Meer PNAS January 22, 2019 116 (4) 1174-1179; published ahead of print January 22, 2019 www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1174 For a detailed description of the setup: www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/Langmuir2016.pdf And self-propulsion is also seen: www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/InvLeidenfrost.avi Other recent (hot) Leidenfrost experiments that might be interesting: * Leidenfrost wheels: ch-me.org/videos/video-glRGl-eYuXo.html * Leidenfrost maze: ch-me.org/videos/video-vPZ7sx3EwUY.html * Leidenfrost explosions: ch-me.org/videos/video-z0sp3AjgUy4.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks to Prof. Kevin McKeegan at UCLA for the liquid nitrogen Filming by Raquel Nuno Additional animations by Alan Chamberlain

The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect

 Před 7 měsíci

 Droplets levitate on a bath of liquid nitrogen and are spontaneously self-propelled. Thanks Audible! Start a 30-day trial and your first audiobook is free. Go to audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500. Special thanks to Dr. Anaïs Gauthier Physics of Fluids: pof.tnw.utwente.nl/ Self-propulsion of inverse Leidenfrost drops on a cryogenic bath Anaïs Gauthier, Christian Diddens, Rémi Proville, Detlef Lohse, and Devaraj van der Meer PNAS January 22, 2019 116 (4) 1174-1179; published ahead of print January 22, 2019 www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1174 For a detailed description of the setup: www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/Langmuir2016.pdf And self-propulsion is also seen: www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/InvLeidenfrost.avi Other recent (hot) Leidenfrost experiments that might be interesting: * Leidenfrost wheels: ch-me.org/videos/video-glRGl-eYuXo.html * Leidenfrost maze: ch-me.org/videos/video-vPZ7sx3EwUY.html * Leidenfrost explosions: ch-me.org/videos/video-z0sp3AjgUy4.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks to Prof. Kevin McKeegan at UCLA for the liquid nitrogen Filming by Raquel Nuno Additional animations by Alan Chamberlain

Spinning Black Holes

 A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span? Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham. A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole ve42.co/pasham Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA

Spinning Black Holes

 Před 8 měsíci

 A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span? Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham. A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole ve42.co/pasham Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA

The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)

 A launch mishap led to the best experimental confirmation of gravitational redshift. Get a free audiobook with a 30-day trial of Audible: audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Huge thanks to Dr. Pacome Delva: ve42.co/pacome Dr. Sven Herrmann: ve42.co/sven Gravitational Redshift Test Using Eccentric Galileo Satellites: ve42.co/GRtest Disclaimer: It is arguable what is THE best test of general relativity because there are different ways to test the theory. This is the best confirmation of gravitational redshift, which is one of the three original tests proposed by Einstein. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Subtle Substitutes 2" "A sound Foundation 1" "Cell Research 1" "Particle Attraction 1"

The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)

 Před 9 měsíci

 A launch mishap led to the best experimental confirmation of gravitational redshift. Get a free audiobook with a 30-day trial of Audible: audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Huge thanks to Dr. Pacome Delva: ve42.co/pacome Dr. Sven Herrmann: ve42.co/sven Gravitational Redshift Test Using Eccentric Galileo Satellites: ve42.co/GRtest Disclaimer: It is arguable what is THE best test of general relativity because there are different ways to test the theory. This is the best confirmation of gravitational redshift, which is one of the three original tests proposed by Einstein. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Subtle Substitutes 2" "A sound Foundation 1" "Cell Research 1" "Particle Attraction 1"

How Ultrasound Can Deactivate Parts of the Brain

 Scientists have combined ultrasound, viruses and synthetic drugs to control regions of the brain. Check out Skillshare: skl.sh/veritasium (first 500 get 2 months free) Special thanks to Prof. Mikhail Shapiro and Dr. Jerzy Szablowski: shapirolab.caltech.edu Human brains are complicated - the most complicated thing in the known universe, many people say. So far we understand little - just that certain regions of the brain appear to be involved in certain activities and certain disorders. In extreme cases this has led to the practice of removing sections of the brain, or using electrodes or optical fibers to control activation rates. What is unique about this approach is it offers a way to turn on and off specific brain regions without invasive surgery. It has promise because it combines existing technologies: micro-bubbles, ultrasound, synthetic viruses, and synthetic drugs to achieve this goal. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"

How Ultrasound Can Deactivate Parts of the Brain

 Před 9 měsíci

 Scientists have combined ultrasound, viruses and synthetic drugs to control regions of the brain. Check out Skillshare: skl.sh/veritasium (first 500 get 2 months free) Special thanks to Prof. Mikhail Shapiro and Dr. Jerzy Szablowski: shapirolab.caltech.edu Human brains are complicated - the most complicated thing in the known universe, many people say. So far we understand little - just that certain regions of the brain appear to be involved in certain activities and certain disorders. In extreme cases this has led to the practice of removing sections of the brain, or using electrodes or optical fibers to control activation rates. What is unique about this approach is it offers a way to turn on and off specific brain regions without invasive surgery. It has promise because it combines existing technologies: micro-bubbles, ultrasound, synthetic viruses, and synthetic drugs to achieve this goal. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"

Five Firsts for Mars InSight

 Mars InSight will be the first to detect seismic activity on Mars’ surface, first to measure rate of heat transmitted from interior, first to dig nearly 5m down, first to measure magnetic fields on Mars’ surface, and first to use a robotic arm to place instruments on the surface of Mars (assuming it lands of course…) If you want to watch the InSight landing “live” (with 4-minute speed of light time delay), go to: ve42.co/insight Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations courtesy of NASA Script and Filming with Raquel Nuno Editing and graphics by Ignat Berbeci

Five Firsts for Mars InSight

 Před 9 měsíci

 Mars InSight will be the first to detect seismic activity on Mars’ surface, first to measure rate of heat transmitted from interior, first to dig nearly 5m down, first to measure magnetic fields on Mars’ surface, and first to use a robotic arm to place instruments on the surface of Mars (assuming it lands of course…) If you want to watch the InSight landing “live” (with 4-minute speed of light time delay), go to: ve42.co/insight Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations courtesy of NASA Script and Filming with Raquel Nuno Editing and graphics by Ignat Berbeci

The kg is dead, long live the kg

 The kilogram, mole, kelvin, and ampere will be redefined by physical constants. For a limited time, get 3 months of Audible for just $6.95 a month: audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Will this be the last video I make about SI units? Quite possibly. There's something about being so precise and defining the systems within which science works. When we can more accurately and routinely measure a kilogram, a mole, a kelvin and an ampere, then we can make better observations, we can better detect anomalies and improve our theories. That is why this is so important to me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, James M Nicholson, Terrance Shepherd, Stan Presolski Special thanks to NIST: nist.gov Additional graphics by Ignat Berbeci Music from epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"

The kg is dead, long live the kg

 Před 10 měsíci

 The kilogram, mole, kelvin, and ampere will be redefined by physical constants. For a limited time, get 3 months of Audible for just $6.95 a month: audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Will this be the last video I make about SI units? Quite possibly. There's something about being so precise and defining the systems within which science works. When we can more accurately and routinely measure a kilogram, a mole, a kelvin and an ampere, then we can make better observations, we can better detect anomalies and improve our theories. That is why this is so important to me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, James M Nicholson, Terrance Shepherd, Stan Presolski Special thanks to NIST: nist.gov Additional graphics by Ignat Berbeci Music from epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"

Drinking in ZERO-G! (and other challenges of a trip to Mars)

 A trip to #Mars involves radiation, muscle and bone loss, intermediate axis theorem and liquids. Check out Mars on National Geographic, Monday Nov 12 at 9/8c #sponsored When I got offered the chance to fly in another #zeroG plane, I jumped at the chance. Do you know how hard it is when you are thrust into low-gravity, like the 37% of Earth's gravity of Mars, and you have to remember what you were going to say in a 30 second window as blood floods your head? It's pretty hard. It would be even harder to actually travel to Mars. It would take about 8 months in microgravity during which time your muscles and bones would weaken substantially, even if you exercise for hours a day like the astronauts on the space station. And your heart is a muscle too so it weakens as well. Before I contemplated these rates of muscle and bone loss, I thought the major challenge with a round trip journey to Mars would be the logistics of spacecraft and having enough fuel to get back. But with the weakening of the human body, it's an open question whether anyone would really want to come back. Filmed by Steve Boxall Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com

Drinking in ZERO-G! (and other challenges of a trip to Mars)

 Před 10 měsíci

 A trip to #Mars involves radiation, muscle and bone loss, intermediate axis theorem and liquids. Check out Mars on National Geographic, Monday Nov 12 at 9/8c #sponsored When I got offered the chance to fly in another #zeroG plane, I jumped at the chance. Do you know how hard it is when you are thrust into low-gravity, like the 37% of Earth's gravity of Mars, and you have to remember what you were going to say in a 30 second window as blood floods your head? It's pretty hard. It would be even harder to actually travel to Mars. It would take about 8 months in microgravity during which time your muscles and bones would weaken substantially, even if you exercise for hours a day like the astronauts on the space station. And your heart is a muscle too so it weakens as well. Before I contemplated these rates of muscle and bone loss, I thought the major challenge with a round trip journey to Mars would be the logistics of spacecraft and having enough fuel to get back. But with the weakening of the human body, it's an open question whether anyone would really want to come back. Filmed by Steve Boxall Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com

What Actually Causes Dandruff?

 This fungus lives on your scalp and may affect the genes you express. Check out Head & Shoulders research on getting rid of dandruff: ve42.co/HS Animation by Pindex: ve42.co/pindex When I started this project, I wasn't sure what caused dandruff and I also didn't think much science would go into making a shampoo like Head & Shoulders. So what I learned really surprised me: There are hundreds of scientists working on this shampoo. They run crazy-sounding experiments like hanging hair near Tokyo highways to understand how real-world environments deposit dirt on hair. They use sophisticated scientific techniques like electron microscopes, nuclear magnetic resonance and gene sequencing to study dandruff on the molecular level. In fact they sequenced the entire genome of Malassezia globosa in 2002, one year after the human genome project. Their findings are published in international refereed journals. What they have found is that the Malassezia fungi create free fatty acids as byproducts of their digestion, which for some people create irritation and lead to hyper-proliferation of skin cells, flaking, histamines, inflammatory cytokines, and blood proteins reaching the surface of the skin. These findings indicate the unhealthiness of dandruff scalp and suggest a possible remedy - controlling the metabolism of the Malassezia fungi. This is achieved using different active ingredients in different products and different parts of the world, including zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, and piroctone olamine. With the reduction of irritants, the scalp actually expresses different genes, producing a signature more similar to a non-dandruff baseline scalp. Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com Music also by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com

What Actually Causes Dandruff?

 Před 11 měsíci

 This fungus lives on your scalp and may affect the genes you express. Check out Head & Shoulders research on getting rid of dandruff: ve42.co/HS Animation by Pindex: ve42.co/pindex When I started this project, I wasn't sure what caused dandruff and I also didn't think much science would go into making a shampoo like Head & Shoulders. So what I learned really surprised me: There are hundreds of scientists working on this shampoo. They run crazy-sounding experiments like hanging hair near Tokyo highways to understand how real-world environments deposit dirt on hair. They use sophisticated scientific techniques like electron microscopes, nuclear magnetic resonance and gene sequencing to study dandruff on the molecular level. In fact they sequenced the entire genome of Malassezia globosa in 2002, one year after the human genome project. Their findings are published in international refereed journals. What they have found is that the Malassezia fungi create free fatty acids as byproducts of their digestion, which for some people create irritation and lead to hyper-proliferation of skin cells, flaking, histamines, inflammatory cytokines, and blood proteins reaching the surface of the skin. These findings indicate the unhealthiness of dandruff scalp and suggest a possible remedy - controlling the metabolism of the Malassezia fungi. This is achieved using different active ingredients in different products and different parts of the world, including zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, and piroctone olamine. With the reduction of irritants, the scalp actually expresses different genes, producing a signature more similar to a non-dandruff baseline scalp. Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com Music also by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com

Why Boredom is Good For You

 Boredom makes you more creative, altruistic, introspective, and helps with autobiographical planning. This video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2wAsdUu I feel like this video might come across as condescending but the person I'm really talking to is myself. Despite the fact that I know how useful it can be to be bored, I still find myself trying to fill every last moment with stimulus. Boredom is unpleasant - the open, unstructured thinking that can take place can also feel pointless. But now I'm made this video to remind myself how important boredom is so hopefully I'll make more time to be bored. More resources: The boredom leads people to shock themselves study: Just Think: The challenges of the disengaged mind wjh-www.harvard.edu/~dtg/WILSON%20ET%20AL%202014.pdf Boredom leads people to consider their future and set goals study: Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810011001978 On boredom and altruism: pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ca72/0f959d3c9c31187ac30b28ecfec430bc98cc.pdf Does boredom make us more creative? www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10400419.2014.901073 Amazing filming by Raquel Nuno Music from epidemicsound.com "I Think I Was There" "Critical Thinking 2" "Wide Open" "Seaweed" "A Sound Foundation 1" Music also by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Fig Leaf Rag"

Why Boredom is Good For You

 Před 11 měsíci

 Boredom makes you more creative, altruistic, introspective, and helps with autobiographical planning. This video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2wAsdUu I feel like this video might come across as condescending but the person I'm really talking to is myself. Despite the fact that I know how useful it can be to be bored, I still find myself trying to fill every last moment with stimulus. Boredom is unpleasant - the open, unstructured thinking that can take place can also feel pointless. But now I'm made this video to remind myself how important boredom is so hopefully I'll make more time to be bored. More resources: The boredom leads people to shock themselves study: Just Think: The challenges of the disengaged mind wjh-www.harvard.edu/~dtg/WILSON%20ET%20AL%202014.pdf Boredom leads people to consider their future and set goals study: Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810011001978 On boredom and altruism: pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ca72/0f959d3c9c31187ac30b28ecfec430bc98cc.pdf Does boredom make us more creative? www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10400419.2014.901073 Amazing filming by Raquel Nuno Music from epidemicsound.com "I Think I Was There" "Critical Thinking 2" "Wide Open" "Seaweed" "A Sound Foundation 1" Music also by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Fig Leaf Rag"

This Toy Can Open Any Garage

 Or almost any garage - it's particularly good with fixed code gates and garages. Samy proposes other weaknesses with rolling codes. This video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2oscAe9 I don't condone malicious hacking of gates, garages or other property. The point of this video was to discuss how it could be done using fairly basic technology like this toy that was originally intended as an instant messaging device. I learned a lot in making this video about how codes are sent and received, how they are encrypted or not encrypted. I found out how hard it is to execute in practice something which in principle doesn't seem that difficult. Special thanks to Samy! His original videos on using the IM ME to open radio frequency garages and gates can be found here: ch-me.org/utitle-s4myk He's got a really cool channel so be sure to subscribe if you're interested in this stuff. Music from epidemicsound.com "Critical thinking 2" "I think I was there" "Magnified X 3" And music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan"

This Toy Can Open Any Garage

 Před rokem

 Or almost any garage - it's particularly good with fixed code gates and garages. Samy proposes other weaknesses with rolling codes. This video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2oscAe9 I don't condone malicious hacking of gates, garages or other property. The point of this video was to discuss how it could be done using fairly basic technology like this toy that was originally intended as an instant messaging device. I learned a lot in making this video about how codes are sent and received, how they are encrypted or not encrypted. I found out how hard it is to execute in practice something which in principle doesn't seem that difficult. Special thanks to Samy! His original videos on using the IM ME to open radio frequency garages and gates can be found here: ch-me.org/utitle-s4myk He's got a really cool channel so be sure to subscribe if you're interested in this stuff. Music from epidemicsound.com "Critical thinking 2" "I think I was there" "Magnified X 3" And music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan"

How UV Causes Cancer and Aging

 UV at ground level is non-ionizing but it damages DNA and causes photoaging - how? Also, it turns out glass doesn't block all UV (specifically UVA passes through). This is something I learned filming with the UV camera inside. Special thanks to Dr. Hayley Golbach, @hayleysgold on twitter twitter.com/hayleysgold Ultraviolet light causes damage to DNA, leads to cancer and photoaging: age spots and wrinkles. I was curious about this because UV is technically non-ionizing. A photon of UV doesn't have enough energy to strip an electron off atoms or molecules. However it does have enough energy to trigger photo-chemical reactions. For example, it causes pyrimidine dimers - the unauthorized covalent bonding of adjacent thymine or cytosine bases in our DNA. If these spots are not properly repaired, they may lead to mutations and cancer. Photoaging is typically the result of degradation of collagen and elastin fibers - scaffolding that supports the skin. This leads to wrinkles and saggy-looking skin. Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski, James M Nicholson, KIMoFy Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Music from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

How UV Causes Cancer and Aging

 Před rokem

 UV at ground level is non-ionizing but it damages DNA and causes photoaging - how? Also, it turns out glass doesn't block all UV (specifically UVA passes through). This is something I learned filming with the UV camera inside. Special thanks to Dr. Hayley Golbach, @hayleysgold on twitter twitter.com/hayleysgold Ultraviolet light causes damage to DNA, leads to cancer and photoaging: age spots and wrinkles. I was curious about this because UV is technically non-ionizing. A photon of UV doesn't have enough energy to strip an electron off atoms or molecules. However it does have enough energy to trigger photo-chemical reactions. For example, it causes pyrimidine dimers - the unauthorized covalent bonding of adjacent thymine or cytosine bases in our DNA. If these spots are not properly repaired, they may lead to mutations and cancer. Photoaging is typically the result of degradation of collagen and elastin fibers - scaffolding that supports the skin. This leads to wrinkles and saggy-looking skin. Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski, James M Nicholson, KIMoFy Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Music from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?

 The nutrient content of food is declining. Is it because of soil depletion, selective breeding, or... something else? Watch my new documentary, VITAMANIA: ve42.co/vita I came across this story as I was making the film Vitamania. When you ask sellers of vitamins why you should take vitamin supplements even if you eat a healthy diet, they will say because our food doesn't contain all the nutrients it once did. This is supposedly due to soil depletion, cold storage, food ripening off the vine, and global transport of out-of-season foods. And to an extent this is true. Foods contain the greatest amount of nutrients if they are eaten soon after they are harvested. An unexpected source of nutrient decline is the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes plants to grow faster and bulk up on carbs but at the expense of other nutrients, so in percentage terms the amount of nutrients are actually declining. For now this decline is modest so supplementing with vitamin pills is probably unnecessary for most people with a healthy diet but it may be a concern in future. Thanks to Kate Pappas & Chris Kamen for writing, producing and filming this video with me Edited by Lucy McCallum Sound mix by Wayne Hyett Fact Checking by Calvin Lee and Claire Smith Thanks to the Collingwood Children’s Farm and Glenn Fitzgerald from the University of Melbourne & Agriculture Victoria Further Reading: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215/?ncbi_mmode=std soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/ www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511 www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-24/scientists-warning-rice-may-become-less-nutritious/9792822

Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?

 Před rokem

 The nutrient content of food is declining. Is it because of soil depletion, selective breeding, or... something else? Watch my new documentary, VITAMANIA: ve42.co/vita I came across this story as I was making the film Vitamania. When you ask sellers of vitamins why you should take vitamin supplements even if you eat a healthy diet, they will say because our food doesn't contain all the nutrients it once did. This is supposedly due to soil depletion, cold storage, food ripening off the vine, and global transport of out-of-season foods. And to an extent this is true. Foods contain the greatest amount of nutrients if they are eaten soon after they are harvested. An unexpected source of nutrient decline is the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes plants to grow faster and bulk up on carbs but at the expense of other nutrients, so in percentage terms the amount of nutrients are actually declining. For now this decline is modest so supplementing with vitamin pills is probably unnecessary for most people with a healthy diet but it may be a concern in future. Thanks to Kate Pappas & Chris Kamen for writing, producing and filming this video with me Edited by Lucy McCallum Sound mix by Wayne Hyett Fact Checking by Calvin Lee and Claire Smith Thanks to the Collingwood Children’s Farm and Glenn Fitzgerald from the University of Melbourne & Agriculture Victoria Further Reading: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215/?ncbi_mmode=std soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/ www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511 www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-24/scientists-warning-rice-may-become-less-nutritious/9792822

Can You Overdose on Vitamins?

 Vitamins are 13 molecules essential for life that our bodies can't make themselves. Watch Vitamania here: ve42.co/vita Now available worldwide, except France and Germany where it will be broadcast on ARTE soon. Subscribe on the Vitamania website for updates. Use #vitamania to join the conversation on Twitter and Facebook. Vitamania is a Genepool Productions feature documentary for SBS Australia, CuriosityStream, and ARTE France. Principal production investment from Screen Australia, in association with Film Victoria.

Can You Overdose on Vitamins?

 Před rokem

 Vitamins are 13 molecules essential for life that our bodies can't make themselves. Watch Vitamania here: ve42.co/vita Now available worldwide, except France and Germany where it will be broadcast on ARTE soon. Subscribe on the Vitamania website for updates. Use #vitamania to join the conversation on Twitter and Facebook. Vitamania is a Genepool Productions feature documentary for SBS Australia, CuriosityStream, and ARTE France. Principal production investment from Screen Australia, in association with Film Victoria.

The World in UV

 UV cameras expose a hidden world and reveal the incompleteness of our perception The Physics Girl looks at sunscreen: ch-me.org/videos/video-GRD-xvlhGMc.html How to make sunscreen from scratch: ch-me.org/videos/video-lMXAY5F28L0.html In summary, ultraviolet light interacts differently with matter for a number of reasons: 1. Some pigments selectively absorb UV so they may appear white in the visible but dark in the UV. The pigments usually dissipate the UV energy as heat, though the breaking of bonds can also occur. 2. Fluorescent molecules absorb UV light and re-radiate that energy as visible light. This makes them look dark in the UV but glowing under black light. 3. Ultraviolet light scatters more than visible light because the wavelength is shorter and Raleigh scattering is proportional to the reciprocal of wavelength to the power of four. Special thanks to HHMI BioInteractive for their awesome animations of melanocytes and how the melanin in melanosomes protect your DNA. To see the full video explaining how we get our skin color, check out: ch-me.org/videos/video-VC0TL_lYLm8.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski References: Overview of main UV effects: Visualizing Rayleigh Scattering through UV Photography journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00260.1 Arctic animals are photographed in the UV to increase visibility and get an accurate count: Lavigne, D. (1976). Counting Harp Seals with ultra-violet photography. Polar Record, 18(114), 269-277. doi:10.1017/S0032247400000310 Absorption spectrum of melanin: www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~jgd1000/melanin.html "The spectroscopy of human melanin pigmentation," by N. Kollias. In: Melanin: Its Role in Human Photoprotection, pp. 31 - 38. Valdenmar Publishing Co. (1995). "Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications," by A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, and R. Nuffer, Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11(4), pp. 331 - 340 (1991). "The incidence and time-course of latanoprost-induced iridial pigmentation as a function of eye color," by P. Wistrand, J. Stjernschantz, and K. Olsson, Survey of Ophthalmology 41(S2), pp. S129 - S138 (1997). Music by Epidemic Sound: www.epidemicsound.com "Spring Moods 5"

The World in UV

 Před rokem

 UV cameras expose a hidden world and reveal the incompleteness of our perception The Physics Girl looks at sunscreen: ch-me.org/videos/video-GRD-xvlhGMc.html How to make sunscreen from scratch: ch-me.org/videos/video-lMXAY5F28L0.html In summary, ultraviolet light interacts differently with matter for a number of reasons: 1. Some pigments selectively absorb UV so they may appear white in the visible but dark in the UV. The pigments usually dissipate the UV energy as heat, though the breaking of bonds can also occur. 2. Fluorescent molecules absorb UV light and re-radiate that energy as visible light. This makes them look dark in the UV but glowing under black light. 3. Ultraviolet light scatters more than visible light because the wavelength is shorter and Raleigh scattering is proportional to the reciprocal of wavelength to the power of four. Special thanks to HHMI BioInteractive for their awesome animations of melanocytes and how the melanin in melanosomes protect your DNA. To see the full video explaining how we get our skin color, check out: ch-me.org/videos/video-VC0TL_lYLm8.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski References: Overview of main UV effects: Visualizing Rayleigh Scattering through UV Photography journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00260.1 Arctic animals are photographed in the UV to increase visibility and get an accurate count: Lavigne, D. (1976). Counting Harp Seals with ultra-violet photography. Polar Record, 18(114), 269-277. doi:10.1017/S0032247400000310 Absorption spectrum of melanin: www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~jgd1000/melanin.html "The spectroscopy of human melanin pigmentation," by N. Kollias. In: Melanin: Its Role in Human Photoprotection, pp. 31 - 38. Valdenmar Publishing Co. (1995). "Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications," by A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, and R. Nuffer, Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11(4), pp. 331 - 340 (1991). "The incidence and time-course of latanoprost-induced iridial pigmentation as a function of eye color," by P. Wistrand, J. Stjernschantz, and K. Olsson, Survey of Ophthalmology 41(S2), pp. S129 - S138 (1997). Music by Epidemic Sound: www.epidemicsound.com "Spring Moods 5"

Spinning Sphere of Molten Sodium

 An experiment on how turbulent convection in Earth's core makes a magnetic field Get a free audiobook with a free 30 day trial at www.audible.com/Veritasium or text Veritasium to 500-500 Huge thanks to Prof. Dan Lathrop and team: ve42.co/Lathrop Companion video to explain Earth's magnetic fields in more detail: ch-me.org/videos/video-lWHxmJf6U3M.html Australians! I'm on my way. I'll be doing live shows in Perth, Sydney and Melbourne. Details and tickets here: ve42.co/tour Find out more about the film Vitamania: ve42.co/VITA Special thanks to Brady Haran and Periodic Videos for sodium vs water footage. Original clip is here: ch-me.org/videos/video-mzEOL-N2cbw.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski I learned a lot in making this video and the one on my second channel with Prof. Jon Arnou. I changed a lot of my preconceptions, specifically I thought: 1. That the Earth's magnetic field was a passive thing - it shouldn't need a continuous input of energy to maintain itself (that seemed reasonable to me because the magnetic field has been around for a long time and it seems mostly stable). But as it turns out, the Earth is a giant electromagnet, and so of course those currents dissipate their energy as they encounter resistance in the liquid metal through which they flow. So the energy to continuously create these currents comes from the kinetic energy of the liquid metal flows in the Earth's outer core. 2. If it's convection, I'm thinking hot things rising, cooler things falling. But apparently the main effect driving convection is the compositional differences at the boundary with the Earth's inner core. This is because of the differential freezing at the boundary. Things like iron freeze into the inner core, while elements like sulfur do not. Hence the pockets of lighter material which then rise outwards. 3. I didn't get why the fluid motion was necessary for the generation of the magnetic field. I mean if it's a conducting liquid, it can conduct currents whether it moves or not. But the key is that the liquid metal can 'trap' magnetic fields. I imagine this like how iron channels magnetic fields. Then once these fields are channeled, they can be pulled and stretched, making more magnetic field. 4. Fluids operate very differently in rotating frames of reference. This is something I didn't intuitively grasp. But, as fluids move from the inner core outwards, those particles are moving much more slowly in the direction of rotation than the matter that has been there for a long time, which means the convection currents get deflected and form helices. Music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com Brandenburg Concerto No4

Spinning Sphere of Molten Sodium

 Před rokem

 An experiment on how turbulent convection in Earth's core makes a magnetic field Get a free audiobook with a free 30 day trial at www.audible.com/Veritasium or text Veritasium to 500-500 Huge thanks to Prof. Dan Lathrop and team: ve42.co/Lathrop Companion video to explain Earth's magnetic fields in more detail: ch-me.org/videos/video-lWHxmJf6U3M.html Australians! I'm on my way. I'll be doing live shows in Perth, Sydney and Melbourne. Details and tickets here: ve42.co/tour Find out more about the film Vitamania: ve42.co/VITA Special thanks to Brady Haran and Periodic Videos for sodium vs water footage. Original clip is here: ch-me.org/videos/video-mzEOL-N2cbw.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski I learned a lot in making this video and the one on my second channel with Prof. Jon Arnou. I changed a lot of my preconceptions, specifically I thought: 1. That the Earth's magnetic field was a passive thing - it shouldn't need a continuous input of energy to maintain itself (that seemed reasonable to me because the magnetic field has been around for a long time and it seems mostly stable). But as it turns out, the Earth is a giant electromagnet, and so of course those currents dissipate their energy as they encounter resistance in the liquid metal through which they flow. So the energy to continuously create these currents comes from the kinetic energy of the liquid metal flows in the Earth's outer core. 2. If it's convection, I'm thinking hot things rising, cooler things falling. But apparently the main effect driving convection is the compositional differences at the boundary with the Earth's inner core. This is because of the differential freezing at the boundary. Things like iron freeze into the inner core, while elements like sulfur do not. Hence the pockets of lighter material which then rise outwards. 3. I didn't get why the fluid motion was necessary for the generation of the magnetic field. I mean if it's a conducting liquid, it can conduct currents whether it moves or not. But the key is that the liquid metal can 'trap' magnetic fields. I imagine this like how iron channels magnetic fields. Then once these fields are channeled, they can be pulled and stretched, making more magnetic field. 4. Fluids operate very differently in rotating frames of reference. This is something I didn't intuitively grasp. But, as fluids move from the inner core outwards, those particles are moving much more slowly in the direction of rotation than the matter that has been there for a long time, which means the convection currents get deflected and form helices. Music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com Brandenburg Concerto No4

My Life Story

 The truth, with photons. I hope I've articulated everything clearly in this video. If not, I'll clarify in comments. Thanks to everyone who appears in this video and thanks to everyone who watches this video! Veritasium is of course a combination of the latin 'veritas' meaning truth, and the common element ending 'ium'. I guess this is my version of the 'draw my life' craze that rolled through CH-me many years ago. Except I wanted to tell my story with the actual moments, the photons, the stored magnetic states. There's something about that which is so important to me (because I think the alternative involves fooling yourself) which is why I'm so fascinated by film and video. One of my inspirations for the name Veritasium came from the end of the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, in which he writes: "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,-that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski Music from epidemicsound.com Magnified X1 - Gunnar Johnsen Fluorescent Lights - Martin Gauffin Dissolving Patterns - Ebb & Flod Luna - Ebb & Flod Additional music by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com Sneaky Snitch

My Life Story

 Před rokem

 The truth, with photons. I hope I've articulated everything clearly in this video. If not, I'll clarify in comments. Thanks to everyone who appears in this video and thanks to everyone who watches this video! Veritasium is of course a combination of the latin 'veritas' meaning truth, and the common element ending 'ium'. I guess this is my version of the 'draw my life' craze that rolled through CH-me many years ago. Except I wanted to tell my story with the actual moments, the photons, the stored magnetic states. There's something about that which is so important to me (because I think the alternative involves fooling yourself) which is why I'm so fascinated by film and video. One of my inspirations for the name Veritasium came from the end of the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, in which he writes: "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,-that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski Music from epidemicsound.com Magnified X1 - Gunnar Johnsen Fluorescent Lights - Martin Gauffin Dissolving Patterns - Ebb & Flod Luna - Ebb & Flod Additional music by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com Sneaky Snitch

Why Einstein Thought Nuclear Weapons Impossible

 Without neutrons, harnessing nuclear energy would be impossible. Try Audible free for 30 days: audible.com/veritasium I have a new documentary coming out in a few months - sign up here to be notified and see a sneak preview: vitamaniathemovie.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow A few years ago I made a documentary about uranium, radioactivity and radiation. I always thought of the characters in our story as the scientists and maybe the uranium nucleus itself. It was only through making the documentary that I realized the real hero of the story is the neutron. Without a neutral nuclear particle, it would be virtually impossible to release the energy from the nucleus. But with it, and the idea of a chain reaction, nuclear energy went from science fiction to reality. That is something I had not grasped as clearly before and it motivated me to make this video. Filmed by Raquel Nuno.

Why Einstein Thought Nuclear Weapons Impossible

 Před rokem

 Without neutrons, harnessing nuclear energy would be impossible. Try Audible free for 30 days: audible.com/veritasium I have a new documentary coming out in a few months - sign up here to be notified and see a sneak preview: vitamaniathemovie.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow A few years ago I made a documentary about uranium, radioactivity and radiation. I always thought of the characters in our story as the scientists and maybe the uranium nucleus itself. It was only through making the documentary that I realized the real hero of the story is the neutron. Without a neutral nuclear particle, it would be virtually impossible to release the energy from the nucleus. But with it, and the idea of a chain reaction, nuclear energy went from science fiction to reality. That is something I had not grasped as clearly before and it motivated me to make this video. Filmed by Raquel Nuno.

The Threat of AI Weapons

 Will artificial intelligence weapons cause World War III? ch-me.org/videos/video-qiJTq11kqdw.html This animated clip is from my friends at ve42.co/pindex2 New series! vrv.co/paradigms I'm not sure how alarmed to be about artificial intelligence. Personally I think it's really hard to predict when we'll create a machine that essentially has consciousness. That's because we don't know what consciousness is, how it works, what's required to create it etc. So It might be technologically around the corner or a hundred years away. What I do think is more predictable is the development of autonomous weapons that use AI to be the most effective killing machines of all time. That is scary. As outline by people like Musk and Hawking, this threat is clear and present so we should address it. I would like to see us agree as a species not to develop these sorts of weapons because if any one state does develop them, they would be very hard to stop.

The Threat of AI Weapons

 Před rokem

 Will artificial intelligence weapons cause World War III? ch-me.org/videos/video-qiJTq11kqdw.html This animated clip is from my friends at ve42.co/pindex2 New series! vrv.co/paradigms I'm not sure how alarmed to be about artificial intelligence. Personally I think it's really hard to predict when we'll create a machine that essentially has consciousness. That's because we don't know what consciousness is, how it works, what's required to create it etc. So It might be technologically around the corner or a hundred years away. What I do think is more predictable is the development of autonomous weapons that use AI to be the most effective killing machines of all time. That is scary. As outline by people like Musk and Hawking, this threat is clear and present so we should address it. I would like to see us agree as a species not to develop these sorts of weapons because if any one state does develop them, they would be very hard to stop.

Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To You?!

 Mosquitoes are attracted to me and it's likely due to my genes. This video is sponsored by 23andMe 23andme.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Immo Hansen and team: ve42.co/hansen References: Genome Wide Association Study for self-reported mosquito attractiveness: ve42.co/MossieGWAS The twin study showing correlated attractiveness is stronger for identical twins: ve42.co/MossieTwins Some things we know make mosquitoes more attracted to you: Exercising, higher metabolism, higher body temperature, more body odor, being pregnant, type O blood, infrequent bathing, lactic acid, ammonia, acetone. There are a number of folk remedies people believe protect them from mosquito bites like drinking alcohol, eating garlic, or taking vitamin B. These do not appear to provide any benefit in lab studies and in fact drinking alcohol is associated with increased mosquito activity because it causes blood vessels near the surface of the skin to dilate. And apparently some of your attractiveness to mosquitos is simply genetic. This may be mediated through your immune system, which is what a lot of the genes identified were associated with. Molecular models are microSnatoms: snatoms.com Filming in New Mexico by Raquel Nuno Animations by Jacqui Robertson The opinions and conclusions drawn in this video are those of Veritasium and not 23andMe.

Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To You?!

 Před rokem

 Mosquitoes are attracted to me and it's likely due to my genes. This video is sponsored by 23andMe 23andme.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Immo Hansen and team: ve42.co/hansen References: Genome Wide Association Study for self-reported mosquito attractiveness: ve42.co/MossieGWAS The twin study showing correlated attractiveness is stronger for identical twins: ve42.co/MossieTwins Some things we know make mosquitoes more attracted to you: Exercising, higher metabolism, higher body temperature, more body odor, being pregnant, type O blood, infrequent bathing, lactic acid, ammonia, acetone. There are a number of folk remedies people believe protect them from mosquito bites like drinking alcohol, eating garlic, or taking vitamin B. These do not appear to provide any benefit in lab studies and in fact drinking alcohol is associated with increased mosquito activity because it causes blood vessels near the surface of the skin to dilate. And apparently some of your attractiveness to mosquitos is simply genetic. This may be mediated through your immune system, which is what a lot of the genes identified were associated with. Molecular models are microSnatoms: snatoms.com Filming in New Mexico by Raquel Nuno Animations by Jacqui Robertson The opinions and conclusions drawn in this video are those of Veritasium and not 23andMe.

This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry

 Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno

This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry

 Před rokem

 Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno

World's First Car!

 I got to drive the world's first car (replica), patented by Benz in 1886 Check out the series on new safety features: ve42.co/MB This video is sponsored by Mercedes-Benz, who invited me to come to Stuttgart to see their latest cars, crash test facilities and experience the innovations they are working on. Physics is something that is directly applicable to car safety. Cars go fast, but they also sometimes collide with obstacles, which brings them to a sudden stop, subjecting the car and occupants to very high accelerations, which can cause injury or death. So the major idea to improve car safety is to reduce these accelerations and there are a number of ways to do this: Passive safety: Seat belts: keep passengers in the vehicle, preventing them from continuing with constant velocity, flying through the windshield and suffering a worse deceleration when they make contact with the road. Crumple zones: increase the distance over which deceleration occurs, thereby reducing peak magnitude of deceleration. Air bags: increase the distance over which the head decelerates, again reducing peak magnitude of deceleration of the head. Active Safety: Anti-lock braking system: rather than 'locking' the wheels as can happen if you slam on the brakes with a traditional braking system leading to the tires skidding across the road, ABS attempts to control the amount of braking so that the tires always roll with static friction in contact with the road. This increases the backward frictional force that can be applied to the tires, again increasing the distance over which deceleration occurs, and it gives the driver an opportunity to steer to avoid the collision (hence why it's referred to as an active safety system). Special thanks to Mercedes for having me visit facilities in Stuttgart. I had a lot of fun making these videos so please do check out the series on Mercedes Benz's channel: ve42.co/MB Filmed by Simon Schneider Edited by Hoplite Creative and Trevor Carlee

World's First Car!

 Před rokem

 I got to drive the world's first car (replica), patented by Benz in 1886 Check out the series on new safety features: ve42.co/MB This video is sponsored by Mercedes-Benz, who invited me to come to Stuttgart to see their latest cars, crash test facilities and experience the innovations they are working on. Physics is something that is directly applicable to car safety. Cars go fast, but they also sometimes collide with obstacles, which brings them to a sudden stop, subjecting the car and occupants to very high accelerations, which can cause injury or death. So the major idea to improve car safety is to reduce these accelerations and there are a number of ways to do this: Passive safety: Seat belts: keep passengers in the vehicle, preventing them from continuing with constant velocity, flying through the windshield and suffering a worse deceleration when they make contact with the road. Crumple zones: increase the distance over which deceleration occurs, thereby reducing peak magnitude of deceleration. Air bags: increase the distance over which the head decelerates, again reducing peak magnitude of deceleration of the head. Active Safety: Anti-lock braking system: rather than 'locking' the wheels as can happen if you slam on the brakes with a traditional braking system leading to the tires skidding across the road, ABS attempts to control the amount of braking so that the tires always roll with static friction in contact with the road. This increases the backward frictional force that can be applied to the tires, again increasing the distance over which deceleration occurs, and it gives the driver an opportunity to steer to avoid the collision (hence why it's referred to as an active safety system). Special thanks to Mercedes for having me visit facilities in Stuttgart. I had a lot of fun making these videos so please do check out the series on Mercedes Benz's channel: ve42.co/MB Filmed by Simon Schneider Edited by Hoplite Creative and Trevor Carlee

Your Body's Molecular Machines

 These are the molecular machines inside your body that make cell division possible. Animation by Drew Berry at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. wehi.tv Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Joshua Abenir, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Every day in an adult human roughly 50-70 billion of your cells die. They may be damaged, stressed, or just plain old - this is normal, in fact it’s called programmed cell death. To make up for that loss, right now, inside your body, billions of cells are dividing, creating new cells. And cell division, also called mitosis, requires an army of tiny molecular machines.DNA is a good place to start - the double helix molecule that we always talk about. This is a scientifically accurate depiction of DNA. If you unwind the two strands you can see that each has a sugar phosphate backbone connected to the sequence of nucleic acid base pairs, known by the letters A,T,G, and C. Now the strands run in opposite directions, which is important when you go to copy DNA. Copying DNA is one of the first steps in cell division. Here the two strands of DNA are being unwound and separated by the tiny blue molecular machine called helicase. It literally spins as fast as a jet engine! The strand of DNA on the right has its complimentary strand assembled continuously but the other strand is more complicated because it runs in the opposite direction. So it must be looped out with its compliment strand assembled in reverse, section by section. At the end of this process you have two identical DNA molecules, each one a few centimeters long but just a couple nanometers wide. To prevent the DNA from becoming a tangled mess, it is wrapped around proteins called a histones, forming a nucleosome. These nucleosomes are bundled together into a fiber known as chromatin, which is further looped and coiled to form a chromosome, one of the largest molecular structures in your body. You can actually see chromosomes under a microscope in dividing cells - only then do they take on their characteristic shape. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals. This footage is from a time lapse. You can see how the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell. When everything is right they are pulled apart into the two new daughter cells, each one containing an identical copy of DNA. As simple as it looks, this process is incredibly complicated and requires even more fascinating molecular machines to accomplish it. Let’s look at a single chromosome. One chromosome consists of two sausage-shaped chromatids - containing the identical copies of DNA made earlier. Each chromatid is attached to microtubule fibers, which guide and help align them in the correct position. The microtubules are connected to the chromatid at the kinetochore, here colored red. The kinetochore consists of hundreds of proteins working together to achieve multiple objectives - it’s one of the most sophisticated molecular mechanisms inside your body. The kinetochore is central to the successful separation of the chromatids. It creates a dynamic connection between the chromosome and the microtubules. For a reason no one’s yet been able to figure out, the microtubules are constantly being built at one end and deconstructed at the other. While the chromosome is still getting ready, the kinetochore sends out a chemical stop signal to the rest of the cell, shown here by the red molecules, basically saying this chromosome is not yet ready to divide The kinetochore also mechanically senses tension. When the tension is just right and the position and attachment are correct all the proteins get ready, shown here by turning green. At this point the stop signal broadcasting system is not switched off. Instead it is literally carried away from the kinetochore down the microtubules by a dynein motor. This is really what it looks like. It has long ‘legs’ so it can avoid obstacles and step over the kinesins, molecular motors walking the other direction. Studio filming by Raquel Nuno

Your Body's Molecular Machines

 Před rokem

 These are the molecular machines inside your body that make cell division possible. Animation by Drew Berry at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. wehi.tv Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Joshua Abenir, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Every day in an adult human roughly 50-70 billion of your cells die. They may be damaged, stressed, or just plain old - this is normal, in fact it’s called programmed cell death. To make up for that loss, right now, inside your body, billions of cells are dividing, creating new cells. And cell division, also called mitosis, requires an army of tiny molecular machines.DNA is a good place to start - the double helix molecule that we always talk about. This is a scientifically accurate depiction of DNA. If you unwind the two strands you can see that each has a sugar phosphate backbone connected to the sequence of nucleic acid base pairs, known by the letters A,T,G, and C. Now the strands run in opposite directions, which is important when you go to copy DNA. Copying DNA is one of the first steps in cell division. Here the two strands of DNA are being unwound and separated by the tiny blue molecular machine called helicase. It literally spins as fast as a jet engine! The strand of DNA on the right has its complimentary strand assembled continuously but the other strand is more complicated because it runs in the opposite direction. So it must be looped out with its compliment strand assembled in reverse, section by section. At the end of this process you have two identical DNA molecules, each one a few centimeters long but just a couple nanometers wide. To prevent the DNA from becoming a tangled mess, it is wrapped around proteins called a histones, forming a nucleosome. These nucleosomes are bundled together into a fiber known as chromatin, which is further looped and coiled to form a chromosome, one of the largest molecular structures in your body. You can actually see chromosomes under a microscope in dividing cells - only then do they take on their characteristic shape. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals. This footage is from a time lapse. You can see how the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell. When everything is right they are pulled apart into the two new daughter cells, each one containing an identical copy of DNA. As simple as it looks, this process is incredibly complicated and requires even more fascinating molecular machines to accomplish it. Let’s look at a single chromosome. One chromosome consists of two sausage-shaped chromatids - containing the identical copies of DNA made earlier. Each chromatid is attached to microtubule fibers, which guide and help align them in the correct position. The microtubules are connected to the chromatid at the kinetochore, here colored red. The kinetochore consists of hundreds of proteins working together to achieve multiple objectives - it’s one of the most sophisticated molecular mechanisms inside your body. The kinetochore is central to the successful separation of the chromatids. It creates a dynamic connection between the chromosome and the microtubules. For a reason no one’s yet been able to figure out, the microtubules are constantly being built at one end and deconstructed at the other. While the chromosome is still getting ready, the kinetochore sends out a chemical stop signal to the rest of the cell, shown here by the red molecules, basically saying this chromosome is not yet ready to divide The kinetochore also mechanically senses tension. When the tension is just right and the position and attachment are correct all the proteins get ready, shown here by turning green. At this point the stop signal broadcasting system is not switched off. Instead it is literally carried away from the kinetochore down the microtubules by a dynein motor. This is really what it looks like. It has long ‘legs’ so it can avoid obstacles and step over the kinesins, molecular motors walking the other direction. Studio filming by Raquel Nuno

Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays

 The merging of two neutron stars was detected by gravitational waves and then by telescopes in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a historic detection as it demonstrates: - the first gravitational waves detected from inspiraling neutron stars - the first joint observation by gravitational wave and electromagnetic wave astronomy - identification of a gamma ray burst in conjunction with merging neutron stars - how gravitational waves and gamma rays can be used together to locate their source All evidence so far indicates that the data support General Relativity. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Graphics from: Jets and Debris from a Neutron Star Collision This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue). Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab Virgo Helps Localize Gravitational-Wave Signals Sky localizations of gravitational-wave signals detected by LIGO beginning in 2015 (GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, GW170104), and, more recently, by the LIGO-Virgo network (GW170814, GW170817). After Virgo came online in August 2017, scientists were better able to localize the gravitational-wave signals. The background is an optical image of the Milky Way. The localizations of GW150914, LVT151012, and GW170104 wrap around the celestial sphere, so the sky map is shown with a translucent dome. Credit: LIGO/Virgo/NASA/Leo Singer (Milky Way image: Axel Mellinger) Variety of Gravitational Waves and a Chirp The signal measured by LIGO and Virgo from the neutron star merger GW170817 is compared here to previously detected binary black hole mergers. All signals are shown starting at 30 Hertz, and the progression of GW170817 is shown in real time, accompanied by its conversion to audio heard at the end of the movie. GW170817 was observable for more than 30 times longer than any previous gravitational-wave signal. Credit: LIGO/University of Oregon/Ben Farr LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists and some 100 institutions from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian collaboration OzGrav. Additional partners are listed at ligo.org/partners.php The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.

Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays

 Před rokem

 The merging of two neutron stars was detected by gravitational waves and then by telescopes in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a historic detection as it demonstrates: - the first gravitational waves detected from inspiraling neutron stars - the first joint observation by gravitational wave and electromagnetic wave astronomy - identification of a gamma ray burst in conjunction with merging neutron stars - how gravitational waves and gamma rays can be used together to locate their source All evidence so far indicates that the data support General Relativity. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Graphics from: Jets and Debris from a Neutron Star Collision This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue). Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab Virgo Helps Localize Gravitational-Wave Signals Sky localizations of gravitational-wave signals detected by LIGO beginning in 2015 (GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, GW170104), and, more recently, by the LIGO-Virgo network (GW170814, GW170817). After Virgo came online in August 2017, scientists were better able to localize the gravitational-wave signals. The background is an optical image of the Milky Way. The localizations of GW150914, LVT151012, and GW170104 wrap around the celestial sphere, so the sky map is shown with a translucent dome. Credit: LIGO/Virgo/NASA/Leo Singer (Milky Way image: Axel Mellinger) Variety of Gravitational Waves and a Chirp The signal measured by LIGO and Virgo from the neutron star merger GW170817 is compared here to previously detected binary black hole mergers. All signals are shown starting at 30 Hertz, and the progression of GW170817 is shown in real time, accompanied by its conversion to audio heard at the end of the movie. GW170817 was observable for more than 30 times longer than any previous gravitational-wave signal. Credit: LIGO/University of Oregon/Ben Farr LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists and some 100 institutions from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian collaboration OzGrav. Additional partners are listed at ligo.org/partners.php The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.

Schlieren Imaging in Color!

 How Schlieren imaging works in color, black and white and slow-mo. Get a free audiobook with a 30 day free trial at www.audible.com/veritasium Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Filming by Raquel Nuno Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit

Schlieren Imaging in Color!

 Před 2 lety

 How Schlieren imaging works in color, black and white and slow-mo. Get a free audiobook with a 30 day free trial at www.audible.com/veritasium Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Filming by Raquel Nuno Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit

Total Solar Eclipse (2017)

 The total solar eclipse from Madras, Oregon on August 21, 2017. As the moon passed in front of the sun turning day to night and revealing the sun's corona, apparently all I could think to say was 'Oh my goodness!' Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Ron Neal, Zach Mueller, Jeff Straathof, Curational, Tony Fadell Everyone says not to photograph your first solar eclipse and I think they might be right. I was focused on getting the exposure right for Bailey's beads and the diamond ring, plus making sure to get the corona and solar flares. This was a bit stressful but I'm delighted with the results. This video originally included more info but since I'm uploading from Madras where the internet is sluggish, I cut out three minutes so the upload would happen before I had to leave for my flight. Special thanks also to Dr. Teagan Wall for sharing this experience with me and Raquel Nuno for inspiring me to come to Oregon. Music from epidemicsound.com "Spinning Earth 2" and Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Big Mojo"

Total Solar Eclipse (2017)

 Před 2 lety

 The total solar eclipse from Madras, Oregon on August 21, 2017. As the moon passed in front of the sun turning day to night and revealing the sun's corona, apparently all I could think to say was 'Oh my goodness!' Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Ron Neal, Zach Mueller, Jeff Straathof, Curational, Tony Fadell Everyone says not to photograph your first solar eclipse and I think they might be right. I was focused on getting the exposure right for Bailey's beads and the diamond ring, plus making sure to get the corona and solar flares. This was a bit stressful but I'm delighted with the results. This video originally included more info but since I'm uploading from Madras where the internet is sluggish, I cut out three minutes so the upload would happen before I had to leave for my flight. Special thanks also to Dr. Teagan Wall for sharing this experience with me and Raquel Nuno for inspiring me to come to Oregon. Music from epidemicsound.com "Spinning Earth 2" and Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Big Mojo"

How We're Redefining the kg

 In 2018 the kg will be defined by Planck's constant, not a hunk of metal. Try a free book from Audible for 30 days ve42.co/audible Special thanks to the staff at NIST who made this possible: Darine Haddad, Jon Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, and Ben Stein. Additional footage and animations by Sean Kelley, Jennifer Lauren Lee, and Frank Seifert. I have been obsessed with measurement for a long time and I'm not sure quite how it happened. The world's roundest object played a role in this. I guess I'm just fascinated by how difficult it is to pin down a quantity like a kilogram. A physical object seemed like a good idea until the mass of the international prototype kilogram wasn't as constant as expected. These methods of the Kibble balance and silicon sphere have shown better precision than 20 parts per billion, making them superior to the old method. The agreement between Avogadro approaches Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Interferometer video by TSG Physics: ch-me.org/videos/video-j-u3IEgcTiQ.html Music from epidemicsound.com "ExperiMental1" by Gunnar Johnsén Studio filming by Raquel Nuno

How We're Redefining the kg

 Před 2 lety

 In 2018 the kg will be defined by Planck's constant, not a hunk of metal. Try a free book from Audible for 30 days ve42.co/audible Special thanks to the staff at NIST who made this possible: Darine Haddad, Jon Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, and Ben Stein. Additional footage and animations by Sean Kelley, Jennifer Lauren Lee, and Frank Seifert. I have been obsessed with measurement for a long time and I'm not sure quite how it happened. The world's roundest object played a role in this. I guess I'm just fascinated by how difficult it is to pin down a quantity like a kilogram. A physical object seemed like a good idea until the mass of the international prototype kilogram wasn't as constant as expected. These methods of the Kibble balance and silicon sphere have shown better precision than 20 parts per billion, making them superior to the old method. The agreement between Avogadro approaches Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Interferometer video by TSG Physics: ch-me.org/videos/video-j-u3IEgcTiQ.html Music from epidemicsound.com "ExperiMental1" by Gunnar Johnsén Studio filming by Raquel Nuno

Hydrodynamic Levitation!

 On a stream of water you can levitate light balls of all sizes and even disks and cylinders. The mechanism is not the Bernoulli effect... Want to make this at home? ch-me.org/videos/video-BppcHF2EdAY.html My friend Blake from InnoVinci emailed me with a cool idea for a video and footage of levitating balls in water streams. Initially it was tough to explain the physics of what was going on. The standard Bernoulli effect relies on the object being completely immersed in the upward-flowing fluid. But in this case the water seems to form a single stream around the object and it's deflected away and down from the stream. By Newton's third law, the force on the water by the ball is equal and opposite to the force of the water back on the ball, pushing it up into the stream. There is a stable equilibrium position because if the ball moves into the stream, it "cuts off" the water going over the ball so it drifts out. If it drifts out too far, then lots of water passes over the ball, pushing it back into the stream. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops hollywoodspecialops.com Music from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Colored Spirals 3" "Magnified X 3" "In Orbit 2" "ExperiMental 1"

Hydrodynamic Levitation!

 Před 2 lety

 On a stream of water you can levitate light balls of all sizes and even disks and cylinders. The mechanism is not the Bernoulli effect... Want to make this at home? ch-me.org/videos/video-BppcHF2EdAY.html My friend Blake from InnoVinci emailed me with a cool idea for a video and footage of levitating balls in water streams. Initially it was tough to explain the physics of what was going on. The standard Bernoulli effect relies on the object being completely immersed in the upward-flowing fluid. But in this case the water seems to form a single stream around the object and it's deflected away and down from the stream. By Newton's third law, the force on the water by the ball is equal and opposite to the force of the water back on the ball, pushing it up into the stream. There is a stable equilibrium position because if the ball moves into the stream, it "cuts off" the water going over the ball so it drifts out. If it drifts out too far, then lots of water passes over the ball, pushing it back into the stream. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops hollywoodspecialops.com Music from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Colored Spirals 3" "Magnified X 3" "In Orbit 2" "ExperiMental 1"

Seeing the Invisible: SLOW MOTION Schlieren Imaging

 This is what the world would look like if you could see invisible air currents, temperature gradients, and differences in pressure or composition of the air. Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I first saw a Schlieren imaging setup around ten years ago in Melbourne. I was immediately fascinated by the way I could see the warm air coming off my hand. I hadn't expected the currents to be moving that fast or to be so visible. This was a tricky setup to get right because alignment is very important and here I'm just working with what I had lying around the house mostly (plus the mirror). For the best Schlieren photography, making sure the mirror is stable is essential. I want to improve my setup so the mirror doesn't wobble back and forth too much creating the pulsing light and dark sections of this video. The relationship between index of refraction of air and temperature, pressure, humidity and wavelength is complicated. This website will calculate it for you: emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Ciddor.asp Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops: www.hollywoodspecialops.com Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit: www.ashellinthepit.com Filmed by Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Blake Nichols for assistance

Seeing the Invisible: SLOW MOTION Schlieren Imaging

 Před 2 lety

 This is what the world would look like if you could see invisible air currents, temperature gradients, and differences in pressure or composition of the air. Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I first saw a Schlieren imaging setup around ten years ago in Melbourne. I was immediately fascinated by the way I could see the warm air coming off my hand. I hadn't expected the currents to be moving that fast or to be so visible. This was a tricky setup to get right because alignment is very important and here I'm just working with what I had lying around the house mostly (plus the mirror). For the best Schlieren photography, making sure the mirror is stable is essential. I want to improve my setup so the mirror doesn't wobble back and forth too much creating the pulsing light and dark sections of this video. The relationship between index of refraction of air and temperature, pressure, humidity and wavelength is complicated. This website will calculate it for you: emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Ciddor.asp Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops: www.hollywoodspecialops.com Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit: www.ashellinthepit.com Filmed by Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Blake Nichols for assistance

Sandwich Bag Fire Starter

 Grant Thompson - the King of Random - teaches me how to start a fire with a Sandwich bag. And we tried to melt glass in my backyard: goo.gl/zb0uE0 Check out his channel: ve42.co/KoR The intensity of sunlight on Earth is about 1300 Watts per square meter. When you focus the sun's rays using a magnifying glass (or in this case sphere of water) you can increase the intensity roughly ten thousand fold. This increases the temperature of wood to its autoignition point starting the reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere. By protecting the hot embers and adding more energy and fuel, you can get these hot coals to start a roaring fire. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon

Sandwich Bag Fire Starter

 Před 2 lety

 Grant Thompson - the King of Random - teaches me how to start a fire with a Sandwich bag. And we tried to melt glass in my backyard: goo.gl/zb0uE0 Check out his channel: ve42.co/KoR The intensity of sunlight on Earth is about 1300 Watts per square meter. When you focus the sun's rays using a magnifying glass (or in this case sphere of water) you can increase the intensity roughly ten thousand fold. This increases the temperature of wood to its autoignition point starting the reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere. By protecting the hot embers and adding more energy and fuel, you can get these hot coals to start a roaring fire. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon

NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!

 Scientists have JUST published this new observation. On January 4th, 2017 they detected the merger of two black holes 3 billion light-years away. This marks the furthest detection they've been able to make and increases confidence that these events will be seen with increasing frequency as the LIGO interferometers become more sensitive to low amplitude gravitational waves (as sources of noise are eliminated). Special thanks to: Prof. Rana Adhikari Prof. David Reitze Resources by: Binary Neutron Star merger: Relastro @ ITP - Goethe University, Frankfurt ch-me.org/videos/video-nOTXC4FG9gU.html Numerical simulation of black hole merger: S. Ossokine/A. Buonanno/T. Dietrich (MPI for Gravitational Physics)/R. Haas (NCSA)/SXS project Artist's impression of merger and chart: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet) Simulation of black hole merger: SXS Collaboration Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Sound Recording by Raquel Nuno

NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!

 Před 2 lety

 Scientists have JUST published this new observation. On January 4th, 2017 they detected the merger of two black holes 3 billion light-years away. This marks the furthest detection they've been able to make and increases confidence that these events will be seen with increasing frequency as the LIGO interferometers become more sensitive to low amplitude gravitational waves (as sources of noise are eliminated). Special thanks to: Prof. Rana Adhikari Prof. David Reitze Resources by: Binary Neutron Star merger: Relastro @ ITP - Goethe University, Frankfurt ch-me.org/videos/video-nOTXC4FG9gU.html Numerical simulation of black hole merger: S. Ossokine/A. Buonanno/T. Dietrich (MPI for Gravitational Physics)/R. Haas (NCSA)/SXS project Artist's impression of merger and chart: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet) Simulation of black hole merger: SXS Collaboration Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Sound Recording by Raquel Nuno

World's Heaviest Weight

 How do you measure big forces accurately? By calibrating your force transducer on the world's biggest weight - 1,000,000 pounds of force. This machine ensures planes don't break apart, jets provide required thrust, and rockets make it to their destination. Thanks to the people at NIST for showing me around: Rick Seifarth and Ben Stein. Animations here are by Sean Kelley and additional footage by Jennifer Lauren Lee. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Before visiting NIST in Washington DC I had no idea machines like this existed. Surely there's an accurate way to measure forces without creating such a huge known force?! Nope. This appears to be the best way, with a stack of 20 x 50,000 lb masses creating a maximum force of 4.45 MN or 1,000,000 pounds of force. I also wouldn't have thought about all the corrections that need applying - for example buoyancy subtracts about 125 pounds from the weight of the stack. Plus the local gravitational field strength must be taken into account. And, the gravitational field varies below grade. All of this must be taken into account in order to limit uncertainty to just five parts per million (.0005%) Music from The Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

World's Heaviest Weight

 Před 2 lety

 How do you measure big forces accurately? By calibrating your force transducer on the world's biggest weight - 1,000,000 pounds of force. This machine ensures planes don't break apart, jets provide required thrust, and rockets make it to their destination. Thanks to the people at NIST for showing me around: Rick Seifarth and Ben Stein. Animations here are by Sean Kelley and additional footage by Jennifer Lauren Lee. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Before visiting NIST in Washington DC I had no idea machines like this existed. Surely there's an accurate way to measure forces without creating such a huge known force?! Nope. This appears to be the best way, with a stack of 20 x 50,000 lb masses creating a maximum force of 4.45 MN or 1,000,000 pounds of force. I also wouldn't have thought about all the corrections that need applying - for example buoyancy subtracts about 125 pounds from the weight of the stack. Plus the local gravitational field strength must be taken into account. And, the gravitational field varies below grade. All of this must be taken into account in order to limit uncertainty to just five parts per million (.0005%) Music from The Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

Mars 2020: The Next Mission to Mars

 In 2020, NASA will send a new rover to the Martian surface with one of its objectives to search for evidence of ancient life on the planet. I made this clip as a correspondent for Bill Nye Saves the World on Netflix. Touring the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in Pasadena was an awesome experience. I didn't think we were going to get into the control room but we got lucky. Some of the greatest moments in the history of space exploration have taken place there. They have a giant vacuum chamber where they can take the rover down to the atmospheric pressure on Mars (roughly .01x Earth's atmosphere) and test all of the devices to make sure there are no electrical discharges due to the reduced pressure. I also enjoyed seeing how the rocks will be cored and stored in tubes and deposited on the Martian surface awaiting pickup by the following mission. Images courtesy of NASA. Filmed by Raquel Nuno from 3:30 onwards. Music: epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

Mars 2020: The Next Mission to Mars

 Před 2 lety

 In 2020, NASA will send a new rover to the Martian surface with one of its objectives to search for evidence of ancient life on the planet. I made this clip as a correspondent for Bill Nye Saves the World on Netflix. Touring the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in Pasadena was an awesome experience. I didn't think we were going to get into the control room but we got lucky. Some of the greatest moments in the history of space exploration have taken place there. They have a giant vacuum chamber where they can take the rover down to the atmospheric pressure on Mars (roughly .01x Earth's atmosphere) and test all of the devices to make sure there are no electrical discharges due to the reduced pressure. I also enjoyed seeing how the rocks will be cored and stored in tubes and deposited on the Martian surface awaiting pickup by the following mission. Images courtesy of NASA. Filmed by Raquel Nuno from 3:30 onwards. Music: epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

Is America Actually Metric?

 The US signed the metre convention and bases all customary units on SI standards. As an aside, the Utah constitution from 1895 required the metric system to be taught in schools. This requirement was repealed in 1987. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Huge thanks to NIST, Ben Stein and Patrick Abbott. www.nist.gov/ www.nist.gov/pml/weights-and-measures/si-units-mass Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Back in 1875 The US signed the Metre Convention, which basically committed the country to use the metric system. In return, French scientists sent two platinum-iridium cylinders that weigh 1kg to the US in 1889 (known by their designations K4 and K20 from a set of 40 identical objects that were produced and sent around the world). So even though everything you see and buy in the US is usually reported in pounds, all weights are traceable back to the K20 kilogram (by applying a conversion factor to get to pounds). When I was in DC a few weeks ago, I visited the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and got up close with K20, which is still kept there and used to calibrate all mass standards in this country. I thought it was pretty cool. Edited by Bill Connor

Is America Actually Metric?

 Před 2 lety

 The US signed the metre convention and bases all customary units on SI standards. As an aside, the Utah constitution from 1895 required the metric system to be taught in schools. This requirement was repealed in 1987. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Huge thanks to NIST, Ben Stein and Patrick Abbott. www.nist.gov/ www.nist.gov/pml/weights-and-measures/si-units-mass Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Back in 1875 The US signed the Metre Convention, which basically committed the country to use the metric system. In return, French scientists sent two platinum-iridium cylinders that weigh 1kg to the US in 1889 (known by their designations K4 and K20 from a set of 40 identical objects that were produced and sent around the world). So even though everything you see and buy in the US is usually reported in pounds, all weights are traceable back to the K20 kilogram (by applying a conversion factor to get to pounds). When I was in DC a few weeks ago, I visited the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and got up close with K20, which is still kept there and used to calibrate all mass standards in this country. I thought it was pretty cool. Edited by Bill Connor

Fire in ZERO-G!!

 In a zero-g plane I experimented with flames and slinkies with surprising results. Check out e-penser's video: ve42.co/EPzeroG Check out Physicsgirl's video: ve42.co/PGzeroG Thanks to Novespace: ve42.co/novespace Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Nick Luchsinger, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen The zero-g plane allows for a lot of experiments to be conducted without the expense of getting equipment into orbit. Apparently 80% of microgravity research can be performed in a zero-gravity plane, which is much cheaper than going to space. The flame from the lighter seemed much lazier in zero-g because without weight there is no buoyant force and therefore no convection. This makes the process of combustion more challenging because it's difficult for oxygen to reach the fuel. Music from the Epidemic Sound: ve42.co/epidemic "Serene Story 2" "In Orbit 2"

Fire in ZERO-G!!

 Před 2 lety

 In a zero-g plane I experimented with flames and slinkies with surprising results. Check out e-penser's video: ve42.co/EPzeroG Check out Physicsgirl's video: ve42.co/PGzeroG Thanks to Novespace: ve42.co/novespace Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Nick Luchsinger, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen The zero-g plane allows for a lot of experiments to be conducted without the expense of getting equipment into orbit. Apparently 80% of microgravity research can be performed in a zero-gravity plane, which is much cheaper than going to space. The flame from the lighter seemed much lazier in zero-g because without weight there is no buoyant force and therefore no convection. This makes the process of combustion more challenging because it's difficult for oxygen to reach the fuel. Music from the Epidemic Sound: ve42.co/epidemic "Serene Story 2" "In Orbit 2"

The Sun Sneeze Gene

 I have the photic sneeze reflex so I sneeze when I look at bright light. Check out 23andMe: ve42.co/23andme *So technically the single nucleotide swap (C instead of T) is not actually in a gene per se but in an intergenic region on chromosome 2. It's also not clear exactly how this affects physiology or causes the sun sneeze but there is correlative evidence that every copy of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with a 1.3x increase in likelihood of having the photic sneeze reflex. I have wanted to make a video about sun-sneezing for a long time. It is something I've experienced my whole life. When I go from a dark room indoors into full sunlight I invariably sneeze. I thought everyone did it. So my original question was why do people sneeze when they see bright light? That led me to consider what possible evolutionary advantages there could be to sneezing in sunlight. The obvious advantage to me is that sunlight kills pathogens of which there may be many in your snot or mucus. So sneezing in sunshine is a much better idea than sneezing inside a dark, damp cave where you may be living. For more info, check out: Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000993 Filmed by Raquel Nuno

The Sun Sneeze Gene

 Před 2 lety

 I have the photic sneeze reflex so I sneeze when I look at bright light. Check out 23andMe: ve42.co/23andme *So technically the single nucleotide swap (C instead of T) is not actually in a gene per se but in an intergenic region on chromosome 2. It's also not clear exactly how this affects physiology or causes the sun sneeze but there is correlative evidence that every copy of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with a 1.3x increase in likelihood of having the photic sneeze reflex. I have wanted to make a video about sun-sneezing for a long time. It is something I've experienced my whole life. When I go from a dark room indoors into full sunlight I invariably sneeze. I thought everyone did it. So my original question was why do people sneeze when they see bright light? That led me to consider what possible evolutionary advantages there could be to sneezing in sunlight. The obvious advantage to me is that sunlight kills pathogens of which there may be many in your snot or mucus. So sneezing in sunshine is a much better idea than sneezing inside a dark, damp cave where you may be living. For more info, check out: Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000993 Filmed by Raquel Nuno

4 Revolutionary Riddles Resolved!

 The solution to 4 rotation-related riddles, including the mystery cylinder, bike pedal pulling puzzle, track problem, and train part going backwards. Thank you to everyone who responded, liked, shared, or made a video response. Please fill out this short survey for research: ve42.co/Rresearch Special thanks to: Mathematician George Hart: georgehart.com/ For allowing me to use excerpts from his pedal pulling puzzle solution: ve42.co/ppp Petr Lebedev for combing through thousands of comments and providing the stats I gave in this video. Video responses I used in this video (or watched): everWonder? ch-me.org/videos/video-5Ub2Cuclh1M.html A Random Nerdy Channel ch-me.org/videos/video-I9RB9TrZGps.html The Physics DoJo ch-me.org/videos/video-Pns0LCGLu9k.html Oblivious Jim ch-me.org/videos/video-12WZIMEPi1A.html Armchair Explorers ch-me.org/videos/video-S1yX_LTqtms.html MrEngineeringGuy ch-me.org/videos/video-DRF82Rx9_YI.html Professor Cubers ch-me.org/videos/video-qOd5orH-jfM.html Scoop Science ch-me.org/videos/video-uzLO6GqmfhI.html A few notes on the puzzle: 1. A half-full container of honey does pretty well in reproducing the behaviour of the mystery cylinder. I wonder if the motion is a little smoother or more periodic with the ping-pong balls because they move as organized objects - also the delays between motion seemed to be longer with them than without ping pong balls. 2. For the average speed track problem, every time I said velocity I meant speed. Sorry to the pedants out there who are perhaps looking for some trick answer due to displacement being zero when you run around a track. 3. Although a lot of people identified it was something about a train's wheels that move backwards, fewer identified that specifically it was the part of the flange below the rail. Some simply said the bottom half of the wheel. 4. The bicycle question is perhaps the most complex of these riddles. If you tried it with a bike you likely found that it went backwards. But what happens if you sit on the bike and only push backwards on the bottom pedal. The answer might surprise you so give it a shot!

4 Revolutionary Riddles Resolved!

 Před 2 lety

 The solution to 4 rotation-related riddles, including the mystery cylinder, bike pedal pulling puzzle, track problem, and train part going backwards. Thank you to everyone who responded, liked, shared, or made a video response. Please fill out this short survey for research: ve42.co/Rresearch Special thanks to: Mathematician George Hart: georgehart.com/ For allowing me to use excerpts from his pedal pulling puzzle solution: ve42.co/ppp Petr Lebedev for combing through thousands of comments and providing the stats I gave in this video. Video responses I used in this video (or watched): everWonder? ch-me.org/videos/video-5Ub2Cuclh1M.html A Random Nerdy Channel ch-me.org/videos/video-I9RB9TrZGps.html The Physics DoJo ch-me.org/videos/video-Pns0LCGLu9k.html Oblivious Jim ch-me.org/videos/video-12WZIMEPi1A.html Armchair Explorers ch-me.org/videos/video-S1yX_LTqtms.html MrEngineeringGuy ch-me.org/videos/video-DRF82Rx9_YI.html Professor Cubers ch-me.org/videos/video-qOd5orH-jfM.html Scoop Science ch-me.org/videos/video-uzLO6GqmfhI.html A few notes on the puzzle: 1. A half-full container of honey does pretty well in reproducing the behaviour of the mystery cylinder. I wonder if the motion is a little smoother or more periodic with the ping-pong balls because they move as organized objects - also the delays between motion seemed to be longer with them than without ping pong balls. 2. For the average speed track problem, every time I said velocity I meant speed. Sorry to the pedants out there who are perhaps looking for some trick answer due to displacement being zero when you run around a track. 3. Although a lot of people identified it was something about a train's wheels that move backwards, fewer identified that specifically it was the part of the flange below the rail. Some simply said the bottom half of the wheel. 4. The bicycle question is perhaps the most complex of these riddles. If you tried it with a bike you likely found that it went backwards. But what happens if you sit on the bike and only push backwards on the bottom pedal. The answer might surprise you so give it a shot!

4 Revolutionary Riddles

 Can you solve these four rotation-related riddles? Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Test yourself playlist: ve42.co/testurself Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I came across these four physics puzzles over the years in discussions with Neil deGrasse Tyson (riddle 4: which part(s) of a moving train are going backwards with respect to the ground?), Simon Pampena (riddle 2: run around a track twice, the first time slowly, the second time much faster so that the average for the two laps is twice the speed of the first lap). Someone tweeted me a video of the mystery cylinder rolling down the ramp in riddle 1 (sorry I'm not sure who it was). Riddle three about a bicycle going forward or backward when it's bottom peddle is pulled back was brought to me by a number of people and I appreciate all of their help! Filmed by Raquel Nuno. Thanks to everyone at the Palais de la Decouverte! I've had this footage for five years and am only finally releasing it now. I wanted to talk about the way grass grows on a spinning turntable but I couldn't locate the footage...

4 Revolutionary Riddles

 Před 2 lety

 Can you solve these four rotation-related riddles? Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Test yourself playlist: ve42.co/testurself Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I came across these four physics puzzles over the years in discussions with Neil deGrasse Tyson (riddle 4: which part(s) of a moving train are going backwards with respect to the ground?), Simon Pampena (riddle 2: run around a track twice, the first time slowly, the second time much faster so that the average for the two laps is twice the speed of the first lap). Someone tweeted me a video of the mystery cylinder rolling down the ramp in riddle 1 (sorry I'm not sure who it was). Riddle three about a bicycle going forward or backward when it's bottom peddle is pulled back was brought to me by a number of people and I appreciate all of their help! Filmed by Raquel Nuno. Thanks to everyone at the Palais de la Decouverte! I've had this footage for five years and am only finally releasing it now. I wanted to talk about the way grass grows on a spinning turntable but I couldn't locate the footage...

The Bayesian Trap

 Bayes' theorem explained with examples and implications for life. Check out Audible: ve42.co/audible Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon I didn't say it explicitly in the video, but in my view the Bayesian trap is interpreting events that happen repeatedly as events that happen inevitably. They may be inevitable OR they may simply be the outcome of a series of steps, which likely depend on our behaviour. Yet our expectation of a certain outcome often leads us to behave just as we always have which only ensures that outcome. To escape the Bayesian trap, we must be willing to experiment. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Jeff Straathof, Donal Botkin, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Saeed Alghamdi Useful references: The Signal and the Noise, Nate Silver The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy, by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne Bayes' theorem or rule (there are many different versions of the same concept) has fascinated me for a long time due to its uses both in mathematics and statistics, and to solve real world problems. Bayesian inference has been used to crack the Enigma Code and to filter spam email. Bayes has also been used to locate the wreckage from plane crashes deep beneath the sea. Music from epidemicsound.com "Flourishing Views 3"

The Bayesian Trap

 Před 2 lety

 Bayes' theorem explained with examples and implications for life. Check out Audible: ve42.co/audible Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon I didn't say it explicitly in the video, but in my view the Bayesian trap is interpreting events that happen repeatedly as events that happen inevitably. They may be inevitable OR they may simply be the outcome of a series of steps, which likely depend on our behaviour. Yet our expectation of a certain outcome often leads us to behave just as we always have which only ensures that outcome. To escape the Bayesian trap, we must be willing to experiment. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Jeff Straathof, Donal Botkin, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Saeed Alghamdi Useful references: The Signal and the Noise, Nate Silver The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy, by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne Bayes' theorem or rule (there are many different versions of the same concept) has fascinated me for a long time due to its uses both in mathematics and statistics, and to solve real world problems. Bayesian inference has been used to crack the Enigma Code and to filter spam email. Bayes has also been used to locate the wreckage from plane crashes deep beneath the sea. Music from epidemicsound.com "Flourishing Views 3"

Does Water Swirl the Other Way in the Southern Hemisphere?

 The definitive answer about the direction water swirls in two hemispheres Sync the videos yourself: toiletswirl.com For the record Destin and I repeated the experiment 3-4 times each in each hemisphere and got the same results every time. The idea that water going down a drain or flushed down a toilet swirls in opposite directions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres has a long history. But few have ever done the experiment. Destin from Smarter Every Day and I performed identical experiments in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. What we found is the direction of water swirl in a toilet, sink, or bathtub is determined by other sources of angular momentum. However if the body of water is big enough, e.g. a kiddy pool, and left still for long enough (at least 24 hours), then the Coriolis effect is observable with water swirling counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. Veritasium on Instagram: instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: twitter.com/veritasium facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: twitter.com/smartereveryday facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: ch-me.org/utitle-braincraftvideo MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...

Does Water Swirl the Other Way in the Southern Hemisphere?

 Před 2 lety

 The definitive answer about the direction water swirls in two hemispheres Sync the videos yourself: toiletswirl.com For the record Destin and I repeated the experiment 3-4 times each in each hemisphere and got the same results every time. The idea that water going down a drain or flushed down a toilet swirls in opposite directions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres has a long history. But few have ever done the experiment. Destin from Smarter Every Day and I performed identical experiments in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. What we found is the direction of water swirl in a toilet, sink, or bathtub is determined by other sources of angular momentum. However if the body of water is big enough, e.g. a kiddy pool, and left still for long enough (at least 24 hours), then the Coriolis effect is observable with water swirling counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. Veritasium on Instagram: instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: twitter.com/veritasium facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: twitter.com/smartereveryday facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: ch-me.org/utitle-braincraftvideo MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...

The Science of Thinking

 How the brain works, how we learn, and why we sometimes make stupid mistakes. Submit ideas: ve42.co/GotIdeas Apply to work with me: ve42.co/JoinUs Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon This video was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman Harpist: Lara Somogyi ve42.co/Lara Animator: Jesse Agar ve42.co/ThisPlace Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music by Kevin MacLeod, incompetech.com "Sneaky Adventure" "Harlequin"

The Science of Thinking

 Před 2 lety

 How the brain works, how we learn, and why we sometimes make stupid mistakes. Submit ideas: ve42.co/GotIdeas Apply to work with me: ve42.co/JoinUs Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon This video was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman Harpist: Lara Somogyi ve42.co/Lara Animator: Jesse Agar ve42.co/ThisPlace Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music by Kevin MacLeod, incompetech.com "Sneaky Adventure" "Harlequin"

Water on the Moon?

 NEW CHANNEL! ch-me.org/utitle-sciencium For a long time we thought the Moon was completely dry, but it turns out there are actually three sources of lunar water. Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting the new channel! ch-me.org/utitle-makingscience Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon References: Great history of water on the moon: arxiv.org/pdf/1205.5597.pdf Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music from epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

Water on the Moon?

 Před 2 lety

 NEW CHANNEL! ch-me.org/utitle-sciencium For a long time we thought the Moon was completely dry, but it turns out there are actually three sources of lunar water. Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting the new channel! ch-me.org/utitle-makingscience Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon References: Great history of water on the moon: arxiv.org/pdf/1205.5597.pdf Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music from epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"

Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter

 Spinning magnets near copper sheets create levitation! Try Audible free for 30 days: bit.ly/AudibleVe Special thanks to Hyperloop One for showing me around. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Perry cl, Bryan Baker Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno, Edited by Trevor Carlee Obviously this "quadcopter" is a demonstration device, showing how moving magnets over a conducting surface can generate levitation. It has not been optimized to minimize losses or be an efficient mode of transport. I still think it's pretty cool. I'm used to seeing light things levitated by induced currents but not a 100+ lb machine. For more on Hyperloop One: hyperloop-one.com/

Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter

 Před 2 lety

 Spinning magnets near copper sheets create levitation! Try Audible free for 30 days: bit.ly/AudibleVe Special thanks to Hyperloop One for showing me around. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Perry cl, Bryan Baker Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno, Edited by Trevor Carlee Obviously this "quadcopter" is a demonstration device, showing how moving magnets over a conducting surface can generate levitation. It has not been optimized to minimize losses or be an efficient mode of transport. I still think it's pretty cool. I'm used to seeing light things levitated by induced currents but not a 100+ lb machine. For more on Hyperloop One: hyperloop-one.com/

The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars

 We talk about all the potentially challenging situations autonomous cars could get into but not about how human drivers are not very good. Tens of thousands die on the roads every year in collisions, most of which could be prevented by autonomous vehicles. Sponsored by BMW I wanted to make a video about autonomous cars for some time but I hadn't had the opportunity. The self-driving technology is already at a state where it can save lives if only it were more widely implemented. Links to original clips: TED-Ed ch-me.org/videos/video-ixIoDYVfKA0.html BBC Newsnight: ch-me.org/videos/video-FypPSJfCRFk.html Music from www.epidemicsound.com "Ambient Electronic Groove," "Pet Animals 2," "The Long Ride." Filmed by Raquel Nuno Edited by Trevor Carlee

The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars

 Před 2 lety

 We talk about all the potentially challenging situations autonomous cars could get into but not about how human drivers are not very good. Tens of thousands die on the roads every year in collisions, most of which could be prevented by autonomous vehicles. Sponsored by BMW I wanted to make a video about autonomous cars for some time but I hadn't had the opportunity. The self-driving technology is already at a state where it can save lives if only it were more widely implemented. Links to original clips: TED-Ed ch-me.org/videos/video-ixIoDYVfKA0.html BBC Newsnight: ch-me.org/videos/video-FypPSJfCRFk.html Music from www.epidemicsound.com "Ambient Electronic Groove," "Pet Animals 2," "The Long Ride." Filmed by Raquel Nuno Edited by Trevor Carlee

The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves

 A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: ch-me.org/videos/video-ViMnGgn87dg.html Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)

The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves

 Před 2 lety

 A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: ch-me.org/videos/video-ViMnGgn87dg.html Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)

Post-Truth: Why Facts Don't Matter Anymore

 Why we can't seem to agree on what's true when it's easier than ever to check. Videos like this are usually on 2Veritasium: bit.ly/2Veritasium Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon This video was filmed at a meetup in Stockholm, Sweden on Dec. 9, 2016. Huge thanks to everyone who attended - I had a great time. Sorry to those of you I missed, especially Lund and Gothenburg. Thanks to Patreon supporters (but this is a non-paid post): Meshal Alshammari, Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Ron Neal

Post-Truth: Why Facts Don't Matter Anymore

 Před 2 lety

 Why we can't seem to agree on what's true when it's easier than ever to check. Videos like this are usually on 2Veritasium: bit.ly/2Veritasium Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon This video was filmed at a meetup in Stockholm, Sweden on Dec. 9, 2016. Huge thanks to everyone who attended - I had a great time. Sorry to those of you I missed, especially Lund and Gothenburg. Thanks to Patreon supporters (but this is a non-paid post): Meshal Alshammari, Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Ron Neal

Indestructible Coating?!

 Used in everything from bullet-proof vests to the walls of the Pentagon, polyurea's strength comes from its long-chain molecules. Check out How Ridiculous: bit.ly/VeHowRidiculous Snatoms magnetic molecules: bit.ly/VeSnatoms Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to South Bay Line-X: southbaylinex.com/ Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Filmed by Prashanth Venkataramanujam SFX by A Shell in the Pit

Indestructible Coating?!

 Před 2 lety

 Used in everything from bullet-proof vests to the walls of the Pentagon, polyurea's strength comes from its long-chain molecules. Check out How Ridiculous: bit.ly/VeHowRidiculous Snatoms magnetic molecules: bit.ly/VeSnatoms Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to South Bay Line-X: southbaylinex.com/ Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Filmed by Prashanth Venkataramanujam SFX by A Shell in the Pit

What the Fahrenheit?!

 The crazy story of the arbitrary temperature scale used in a tiny minority of countries. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Snatoms are available again! www.snatoms.com Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Celsius didn't invent Celsius: bit.ly/VeCelsius Video animated by Marcello Ascani: bit.ly/VeMarcello Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Music by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com "Modern Piano Zeta - Improbable" "Ice Demon" "Divertimento K131" "Sneaky Adventure" "Sheep May Safely Graze" "Professor and the Plant" References: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Script: As an Australian-Canadian the Fahrenheit temperature scale always seemsed a bit arbitrary. I mean why does water freeze at 32 degrees? And what exactly does zero represent? According to many sources the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting zero degrees equal to the temperature of an ice, salt, and water mixture and 100 degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature. But that isn’t true. The real story is much more interesting, and scientific... August 14th 1701 was almost certainly the worst day in the life of fifteen year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. On that day both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning. He was sent from Poland, where he lived, to Amsterdam to become an apprentice bookkeeper. But Fahrenheit couldn’t stand his apprenticeship and ran away so many times his employers put out a warrant for his arrest. Traveling from city to city around Europe, he became fascinated with scientific instruments and in particular thermometers. In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant, Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen, who happened to be the famous astronomer Ole Romer. Romer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter’s moons and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth. In other words, he found a way to accurately measure the finite speed of light. But more pertinent to this story, in 1702 Romer was housebound after breaking his leg. To pass the time he devised a new temperature scale with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees and body temperature at 22.5 degrees. This might seem odd until you consider that Romer wanted the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees (as an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60). If you take this scale, divide it in half, in half again, and in half once more, you find the freezing point of water 1/8th up the scale, and human body temperature 3/8th up the scale. So at their meeting in 1708, Fahrenheit learned of Romer’s temperature scale and adopted it as his own, adjusting it slightly because he found it “inconvenient and inelegant on account of the fractional numbers”. So he scaled them up to 8 and 24. That is the original Fahrenheit scale. He produced thermometers for some time using this scale. But then, at some later time Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on his scale by four, setting freezing point to the now familiar 32 and body temperature to 96. It’s unclear exactly why he did this. He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements but I think there was a better reason. You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker. His thermometers agreed with each other precisely, at a time when that was unheard of. He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid, which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol used in most other thermometers at the time. For these accomplishments, he was inducted into the British Royal Society. And we know he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hooke, in which he would have come across the idea that a one degree increase in temperature should correspond to a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid. And today a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000. Is this just a coincidence? We’ll probably never know for sure because as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was secretive about his methods. But I think the data strongly suggests this was the case. So what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit and Romer? By many accounts it’s the temperature of a salt, ice and water mixture. But there are different descriptions of these mixtures and none of them actually produces the temperature they’re supposed to. More likely I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter, set that as zero and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers. Now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Belize, oh and the United States of America.

What the Fahrenheit?!

 Před 2 lety

 The crazy story of the arbitrary temperature scale used in a tiny minority of countries. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Snatoms are available again! www.snatoms.com Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Celsius didn't invent Celsius: bit.ly/VeCelsius Video animated by Marcello Ascani: bit.ly/VeMarcello Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Music by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com "Modern Piano Zeta - Improbable" "Ice Demon" "Divertimento K131" "Sneaky Adventure" "Sheep May Safely Graze" "Professor and the Plant" References: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Script: As an Australian-Canadian the Fahrenheit temperature scale always seemsed a bit arbitrary. I mean why does water freeze at 32 degrees? And what exactly does zero represent? According to many sources the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting zero degrees equal to the temperature of an ice, salt, and water mixture and 100 degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature. But that isn’t true. The real story is much more interesting, and scientific... August 14th 1701 was almost certainly the worst day in the life of fifteen year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. On that day both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning. He was sent from Poland, where he lived, to Amsterdam to become an apprentice bookkeeper. But Fahrenheit couldn’t stand his apprenticeship and ran away so many times his employers put out a warrant for his arrest. Traveling from city to city around Europe, he became fascinated with scientific instruments and in particular thermometers. In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant, Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen, who happened to be the famous astronomer Ole Romer. Romer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter’s moons and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth. In other words, he found a way to accurately measure the finite speed of light. But more pertinent to this story, in 1702 Romer was housebound after breaking his leg. To pass the time he devised a new temperature scale with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees and body temperature at 22.5 degrees. This might seem odd until you consider that Romer wanted the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees (as an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60). If you take this scale, divide it in half, in half again, and in half once more, you find the freezing point of water 1/8th up the scale, and human body temperature 3/8th up the scale. So at their meeting in 1708, Fahrenheit learned of Romer’s temperature scale and adopted it as his own, adjusting it slightly because he found it “inconvenient and inelegant on account of the fractional numbers”. So he scaled them up to 8 and 24. That is the original Fahrenheit scale. He produced thermometers for some time using this scale. But then, at some later time Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on his scale by four, setting freezing point to the now familiar 32 and body temperature to 96. It’s unclear exactly why he did this. He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements but I think there was a better reason. You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker. His thermometers agreed with each other precisely, at a time when that was unheard of. He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid, which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol used in most other thermometers at the time. For these accomplishments, he was inducted into the British Royal Society. And we know he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hooke, in which he would have come across the idea that a one degree increase in temperature should correspond to a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid. And today a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000. Is this just a coincidence? We’ll probably never know for sure because as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was secretive about his methods. But I think the data strongly suggests this was the case. So what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit and Romer? By many accounts it’s the temperature of a salt, ice and water mixture. But there are different descriptions of these mixtures and none of them actually produces the temperature they’re supposed to. More likely I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter, set that as zero and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers. Now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Belize, oh and the United States of America.

Is This What Quantum Mechanics Looks Like?

 Silicone oil droplets provide a physical realization of pilot wave theories. Check out Smarter Every Day: bit.ly/VeSmarter Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Huge thanks to: Dr. Stephane Perrard, Dr Matthieu Labousse, Pr Emmanuel Fort, Pr Yves Couder and their group site dualwalkers.com/ Prof. John Bush: math.mit.edu/~bush/ Dr. Daniel Harris Prof. Stephen Bartlett Looking Glass Universe: bit.ly/LGUVe Workgroup Bohemian Mechanics: www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~bohmmech/ Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Thanks to Google Making and Science for helping me pursue my #sciencegoals. If you want to try this experiment, instructions are here: link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12650-016-0383-5 The standard theory of quantum mechanics leaves a bit to be desired. As Richard Feynman put it, "I think I can safely say that no one understands quantum mechanics." This is because observations of experiments have led us to a theory that contradicts common sense. The wave function contains all the information that is knowable about a particle, yet it can only be used to calculate probabilities of where a particle will likely turn up. It can't give us an actual account of where the particle went or where it will be at some later time. Some have suggested that this theory is incomplete. Maybe something is going on beneath the radar of standard quantum theory and somehow producing the appearance of randomness and uncertainty without actually being random or uncertain. Theories of this sort are called hidden variable theories because they propose entities that aren't observable. One such theory is pilot wave theory, first proposed by de Broglie, but later developed by Bohm. The idea here is that a particle oscillates, creating a wave. It then interacts with the wave and this complex interaction determines its motion. Experiments using silicone oil droplets on a vibrating bath provide a remarkable physical realization of pilot wave theories. They give us a physical picture of what the quantum world might look like if this is what's going on - and this theory is still deterministic. The particle is never in two places at once and there is no randomness. Edited by Robert Dahlem Sound design by A Shell in the Pit

Is This What Quantum Mechanics Looks Like?

 Před 2 lety

 Silicone oil droplets provide a physical realization of pilot wave theories. Check out Smarter Every Day: bit.ly/VeSmarter Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Huge thanks to: Dr. Stephane Perrard, Dr Matthieu Labousse, Pr Emmanuel Fort, Pr Yves Couder and their group site dualwalkers.com/ Prof. John Bush: math.mit.edu/~bush/ Dr. Daniel Harris Prof. Stephen Bartlett Looking Glass Universe: bit.ly/LGUVe Workgroup Bohemian Mechanics: www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~bohmmech/ Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Thanks to Google Making and Science for helping me pursue my #sciencegoals. If you want to try this experiment, instructions are here: link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12650-016-0383-5 The standard theory of quantum mechanics leaves a bit to be desired. As Richard Feynman put it, "I think I can safely say that no one understands quantum mechanics." This is because observations of experiments have led us to a theory that contradicts common sense. The wave function contains all the information that is knowable about a particle, yet it can only be used to calculate probabilities of where a particle will likely turn up. It can't give us an actual account of where the particle went or where it will be at some later time. Some have suggested that this theory is incomplete. Maybe something is going on beneath the radar of standard quantum theory and somehow producing the appearance of randomness and uncertainty without actually being random or uncertain. Theories of this sort are called hidden variable theories because they propose entities that aren't observable. One such theory is pilot wave theory, first proposed by de Broglie, but later developed by Bohm. The idea here is that a particle oscillates, creating a wave. It then interacts with the wave and this complex interaction determines its motion. Experiments using silicone oil droplets on a vibrating bath provide a remarkable physical realization of pilot wave theories. They give us a physical picture of what the quantum world might look like if this is what's going on - and this theory is still deterministic. The particle is never in two places at once and there is no randomness. Edited by Robert Dahlem Sound design by A Shell in the Pit

Welding in Space

 In space, metals can weld together without heat or melting. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Written by Joh Howes and Derek Muller Yes, it's pronounced Gemini (ee not eye) because that's the way everyone pronounced this mission. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi References: Gemini IV transcripts: www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/gemini4.htm Gemini IV recordings: archive.org/details/Gemini4 (relevant clip is 1297 at about 2:00) ESA cold welding recommendations: esmat.esa.int/Publications/Published_papers/STM-279.pdf Cold welding gold nanowire: www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v5/n3/full/nnano.2010.4.html Music by Kevin MacLeod "Intrepid" www.incompetech.com

Welding in Space

 Před 2 lety

 In space, metals can weld together without heat or melting. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Written by Joh Howes and Derek Muller Yes, it's pronounced Gemini (ee not eye) because that's the way everyone pronounced this mission. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi References: Gemini IV transcripts: www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/gemini4.htm Gemini IV recordings: archive.org/details/Gemini4 (relevant clip is 1297 at about 2:00) ESA cold welding recommendations: esmat.esa.int/Publications/Published_papers/STM-279.pdf Cold welding gold nanowire: www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v5/n3/full/nnano.2010.4.html Music by Kevin MacLeod "Intrepid" www.incompetech.com

How the Quantum Vacuum Gave Rise to Galaxies

 All the large-scale structure in the universe may owe its existence to nothing. Sponsored by the Dyson 360 Eye Robot #ad: bit.ly/2cGqBRV Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Let's see how clearly I can explain this. We think of empty space as, well... empty, the epitome of nothingness. But as our understanding of physics has evolved we have realized that it's not truly empty. Space is filled with fields. There is a field for every subatomic particle. One for electrons, up quarks, down quarks, neutrinos and so on. In empty space these fields are basically zero, flat, nil. But it's impossible to make them perfectly zero so there are always some quantum fluctuations in the fields, even in a perfect vacuum. These are sometimes called virtual particles but they should really just be thought of as little disturbances in the field. Vacuum fluctuation play a role mediating the interactions of subatomic particles but they don't really have an impact on the large-scale structure of the universe, EXCEPT during inflation, right after the big bang when the universe increased in size 10^26 times. Due to this rapid expansion, those tiny fluctuations were blown up to the scale of the observable universe. And we know this by looking at the cosmic microwave background radiation where we can see slightly hotter and cooler parts of the early universe that correspond to density fluctuations. And it is these density fluctuations that allowed matter to clump together into large structures like the gigantic gas clouds that would go on to contain stars and planets. In case the video isn't clear, this is what I've been trying to say. Animations by Gustavo Rosa This video was sponsored in part by Dyson #ad

How the Quantum Vacuum Gave Rise to Galaxies

 Před 3 lety

 All the large-scale structure in the universe may owe its existence to nothing. Sponsored by the Dyson 360 Eye Robot #ad: bit.ly/2cGqBRV Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Let's see how clearly I can explain this. We think of empty space as, well... empty, the epitome of nothingness. But as our understanding of physics has evolved we have realized that it's not truly empty. Space is filled with fields. There is a field for every subatomic particle. One for electrons, up quarks, down quarks, neutrinos and so on. In empty space these fields are basically zero, flat, nil. But it's impossible to make them perfectly zero so there are always some quantum fluctuations in the fields, even in a perfect vacuum. These are sometimes called virtual particles but they should really just be thought of as little disturbances in the field. Vacuum fluctuation play a role mediating the interactions of subatomic particles but they don't really have an impact on the large-scale structure of the universe, EXCEPT during inflation, right after the big bang when the universe increased in size 10^26 times. Due to this rapid expansion, those tiny fluctuations were blown up to the scale of the observable universe. And we know this by looking at the cosmic microwave background radiation where we can see slightly hotter and cooler parts of the early universe that correspond to density fluctuations. And it is these density fluctuations that allowed matter to clump together into large structures like the gigantic gas clouds that would go on to contain stars and planets. In case the video isn't clear, this is what I've been trying to say. Animations by Gustavo Rosa This video was sponsored in part by Dyson #ad

The Best and Worst Prediction in Science

 The best and worst predictions in science are both based on the same underlying physics Check out the Great Courses Plus: ow.ly/cePe303oKDM Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to: Prof. Sean Carroll Prof. Brian Schmidt Prof. Stephen Bartlett Prof. Geraint Lewis More on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/XDkwi Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Nathan Hansen Virtual particles are a way of talking about fields and their interactions as though particles are doing all the work. This is why there is some controversy around using the term 'virtual particles'. Some people think the term is useful, especially since in calculating with Feynman diagrams you draw all the particle interactions that are possible (and then do the calculations to get the right answer). While others feel this terminology is misleading because virtual particles don't behave like real particles and can't be observed.

The Best and Worst Prediction in Science

 Před 3 lety

 The best and worst predictions in science are both based on the same underlying physics Check out the Great Courses Plus: ow.ly/cePe303oKDM Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to: Prof. Sean Carroll Prof. Brian Schmidt Prof. Stephen Bartlett Prof. Geraint Lewis More on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/XDkwi Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Nathan Hansen Virtual particles are a way of talking about fields and their interactions as though particles are doing all the work. This is why there is some controversy around using the term 'virtual particles'. Some people think the term is useful, especially since in calculating with Feynman diagrams you draw all the particle interactions that are possible (and then do the calculations to get the right answer). While others feel this terminology is misleading because virtual particles don't behave like real particles and can't be observed.

Is Most Published Research Wrong?

 Mounting evidence suggests a lot of published research is false. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi More information on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/z0wmO The Preregistration Challenge: cos.io/prereg/ Resources used in the making of this video: Why Most Published Research Findings Are False: journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124 Trouble at the Lab: www.economist.com/news/briefing/21588057-scientists-think-science-self-correcting-alarming-degree-it-not-trouble Science isn't broken: fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/#part1 Visual effects by Gustavo Rosa

Is Most Published Research Wrong?

 Před 3 lety

 Mounting evidence suggests a lot of published research is false. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi More information on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/z0wmO The Preregistration Challenge: cos.io/prereg/ Resources used in the making of this video: Why Most Published Research Findings Are False: journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124 Trouble at the Lab: www.economist.com/news/briefing/21588057-scientists-think-science-self-correcting-alarming-degree-it-not-trouble Science isn't broken: fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/#part1 Visual effects by Gustavo Rosa

The Illusion of Truth

 If you repeat something enough times, it comes to feel good and true. Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Science with Hot Wheels! My vids for kids: bit.ly/VeHotWheels More info on cognitive ease: bit.ly/29OMGas This episode was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. This video was edited by Daniel Joseph Files, with music from Kevin MacLeod at incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "Sing Along With Jim" and "Full On". Veritasium is supported on Patreon by: Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Bryan Baker, & Imthetroublesolver 8)

The Illusion of Truth

 Před 3 lety

 If you repeat something enough times, it comes to feel good and true. Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Science with Hot Wheels! My vids for kids: bit.ly/VeHotWheels More info on cognitive ease: bit.ly/29OMGas This episode was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. This video was edited by Daniel Joseph Files, with music from Kevin MacLeod at incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "Sing Along With Jim" and "Full On". Veritasium is supported on Patreon by: Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Bryan Baker, & Imthetroublesolver 8)

Stringless Yo-Yo!

 How can you Yo-Yo without the string attached? Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe For more Ben Conde: bit.ly/VeBenConde For Beyond Slow Motion: bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo For more on yo-yos check out: bit.ly/290wR3a How to yo-yo without a string attached... So many crazy tricks and the science that makes it possible. Edited and animated by Daniel Joseph Files

Stringless Yo-Yo!

 Před 3 lety

 How can you Yo-Yo without the string attached? Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe For more Ben Conde: bit.ly/VeBenConde For Beyond Slow Motion: bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo For more on yo-yos check out: bit.ly/290wR3a How to yo-yo without a string attached... So many crazy tricks and the science that makes it possible. Edited and animated by Daniel Joseph Files

Celsius Didn't Invent Celsius

 Celsius never devised nor used the scale that now bears his name. Veritasium is now on Patreon: patreon.com/veritasium Special thanks to Michael Stevens of Vsauce! ch-me.org/utitle-vsauce1 More info about Celsius and temperature scales: wke.lt/w/s/2I6Nu References for this video: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Special Thanks to the Uppsala University Museum I filmed this in Uppsala in the summer of 2012! So I've been thinking about this idea for a very long time. I'm glad to finally have it out there in the world.

Celsius Didn't Invent Celsius

 Před 3 lety

 Celsius never devised nor used the scale that now bears his name. Veritasium is now on Patreon: patreon.com/veritasium Special thanks to Michael Stevens of Vsauce! ch-me.org/utitle-vsauce1 More info about Celsius and temperature scales: wke.lt/w/s/2I6Nu References for this video: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Special Thanks to the Uppsala University Museum I filmed this in Uppsala in the summer of 2012! So I've been thinking about this idea for a very long time. I'm glad to finally have it out there in the world.

Inside the Svalbard Seed Vault

 A rare look inside the Svalbard Global Seed Vault which is closed ~350 days a year Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe More info on the seed vault: wke.lt/w/s/EKFlK My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. Special thanks to Bente Naeverdal and the Crop Trust: www.croptrust.org

Inside the Svalbard Seed Vault

 Před 3 lety

 A rare look inside the Svalbard Global Seed Vault which is closed ~350 days a year Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe More info on the seed vault: wke.lt/w/s/EKFlK My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. Special thanks to Bente Naeverdal and the Crop Trust: www.croptrust.org

The Northernmost Town on Earth (Svalbard in 4K)

 Longyearbyen on Svalbard is the northernmost settlement with over 1000 residents My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. More info on Svalbard: wke.lt/w/s/yiYNC Music licensed from www.cuesongs.com "After Catalunya" Spotify page: play.spotify.com/artist/2JnQ2AxkaRjlGCNmfkHiJd iTunes: itunes.apple.com/gb/artist/emphemetry/id414183064 Captions: Come take a walk with me around Longyearbyen, the largest town on the Norwegian islands of Svalbard. Parts of it look familiar, but make no mistake, this place is different. At 78 degrees North, it lies just 800 miles or 1300 kilometres from the North Pole. And with over 2,000 permanent inhabitants it is the Northernmost real town on Earth. There are only 50km of road, including the small streets between houses, so people get around the island mainly on snowmobile. In fact there are more registered snowmobiles than residents. Anyone leaving town is required to travel with a gun and someone who knows how to use it because the islands are also home to polar bears. The average daytime high is below freezing for all but four months of the year, and from the end of October to mid-February the sun doesn’t rise at all. This is the long polar night. Living here is tough. This past December an avalanche in town destroyed 10 homes, which used to be here, killing two people. So how did this cold, remote, ice-covered archipelago come to be inhabited? The hills around town are rich in coal deposits that have been mined for over 100 years. The coal was transported to the port via a series of aerial tramways some of which remain today, though they are no longer operational. Coal is a reminder that Svalbard was not always an Arctic ice world. 360 million years ago it was actually in the tropics North of the equator. A swampy area, it was covered with the precursors to modern ferns, which were much larger than they are today, reaching 10-30 metres in height. This vegetation was then covered in mud and sand and submerged under the sea. Over time it turned into the coal deposits that in the 20th century brought miners from Norway, Russia, and the US. Most of the coal mines have now closed and the economy is gradually shifting towards tourism, education and research. Tourists take trips on snowmobiles and dog sleds. There is a university centre in Svalbard, which offers semester courses in biology, physics and geology. And up on the side of a mountain is the Svalbard Global seed vault… but that’s a story for another time. The locals tell me that interest in the region from different nations is increasing. As the globe warms and Arctic ice shrinks, trade routes are opening up across the North. And Svalbard is strategically placed between North America, Asia and Europe. One day in the future Svalbard may no longer be as cold or remote as it once was. But for now it is a reminder of how through our ingenuity people can live in the most inhospitable of places. Shot with a DJI Phantom 4 drone

The Northernmost Town on Earth (Svalbard in 4K)

 Před 3 lety

 Longyearbyen on Svalbard is the northernmost settlement with over 1000 residents My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. More info on Svalbard: wke.lt/w/s/yiYNC Music licensed from www.cuesongs.com "After Catalunya" Spotify page: play.spotify.com/artist/2JnQ2AxkaRjlGCNmfkHiJd iTunes: itunes.apple.com/gb/artist/emphemetry/id414183064 Captions: Come take a walk with me around Longyearbyen, the largest town on the Norwegian islands of Svalbard. Parts of it look familiar, but make no mistake, this place is different. At 78 degrees North, it lies just 800 miles or 1300 kilometres from the North Pole. And with over 2,000 permanent inhabitants it is the Northernmost real town on Earth. There are only 50km of road, including the small streets between houses, so people get around the island mainly on snowmobile. In fact there are more registered snowmobiles than residents. Anyone leaving town is required to travel with a gun and someone who knows how to use it because the islands are also home to polar bears. The average daytime high is below freezing for all but four months of the year, and from the end of October to mid-February the sun doesn’t rise at all. This is the long polar night. Living here is tough. This past December an avalanche in town destroyed 10 homes, which used to be here, killing two people. So how did this cold, remote, ice-covered archipelago come to be inhabited? The hills around town are rich in coal deposits that have been mined for over 100 years. The coal was transported to the port via a series of aerial tramways some of which remain today, though they are no longer operational. Coal is a reminder that Svalbard was not always an Arctic ice world. 360 million years ago it was actually in the tropics North of the equator. A swampy area, it was covered with the precursors to modern ferns, which were much larger than they are today, reaching 10-30 metres in height. This vegetation was then covered in mud and sand and submerged under the sea. Over time it turned into the coal deposits that in the 20th century brought miners from Norway, Russia, and the US. Most of the coal mines have now closed and the economy is gradually shifting towards tourism, education and research. Tourists take trips on snowmobiles and dog sleds. There is a university centre in Svalbard, which offers semester courses in biology, physics and geology. And up on the side of a mountain is the Svalbard Global seed vault… but that’s a story for another time. The locals tell me that interest in the region from different nations is increasing. As the globe warms and Arctic ice shrinks, trade routes are opening up across the North. And Svalbard is strategically placed between North America, Asia and Europe. One day in the future Svalbard may no longer be as cold or remote as it once was. But for now it is a reminder of how through our ingenuity people can live in the most inhospitable of places. Shot with a DJI Phantom 4 drone

Science of Laser Hair Removal in SLOW MOTION

 We also made a video about laser cooling! bit.ly/PhysGirl Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Check out Beyond Slow Motion: bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo More on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/ef3eV Special thanks to Laser Away in Santa Monica for helping make this happen - your staff was awesome! bit.ly/VeLaserAway Research and filming by Raquel Nuno and Aaron White.

Science of Laser Hair Removal in SLOW MOTION

 Před 3 lety

 We also made a video about laser cooling! bit.ly/PhysGirl Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Check out Beyond Slow Motion: bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo More on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/ef3eV Special thanks to Laser Away in Santa Monica for helping make this happen - your staff was awesome! bit.ly/VeLaserAway Research and filming by Raquel Nuno and Aaron White.

Why Anecdotes Trump Data

 A story is worth a thousand data points. My second channel: bit.ly/2veritasium More info on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/TzNC0

Why Anecdotes Trump Data

 Před 3 lety

 A story is worth a thousand data points. My second channel: bit.ly/2veritasium More info on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/TzNC0

These Liquids Look Alive!

 Why do droplets of food coloring attract, repel, and chase each other? Snatoms molecular models: igg.me/at/snatoms More about this topic: wke.lt/w/s/VRjRQ Original paper on droplets: stanford.edu/~manup/docs/Cira_DancingDroplets.pdf Marangoni Flow: web.mit.edu/2.21/www/Lec-notes/Surfacetension/Lecture4.pdf Surface Energy: itf.fys.kuleuven.be/~joi/papers/Wetting%20and%20spreading.pdf Filming and master pipetting by Raquel Nuno Research and writing by Aaron White

These Liquids Look Alive!

 Před 3 lety

 Why do droplets of food coloring attract, repel, and chase each other? Snatoms molecular models: igg.me/at/snatoms More about this topic: wke.lt/w/s/VRjRQ Original paper on droplets: stanford.edu/~manup/docs/Cira_DancingDroplets.pdf Marangoni Flow: web.mit.edu/2.21/www/Lec-notes/Surfacetension/Lecture4.pdf Surface Energy: itf.fys.kuleuven.be/~joi/papers/Wetting%20and%20spreading.pdf Filming and master pipetting by Raquel Nuno Research and writing by Aaron White

What Exactly is the Present?

 What is the specious present? And how do our brains perceive time? Get a 30-day free trial on Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe More info about this topic: wke.lt/w/s/z8TeR

What Exactly is the Present?

 Před 3 lety

 What is the specious present? And how do our brains perceive time? Get a 30-day free trial on Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe More info about this topic: wke.lt/w/s/z8TeR

Why Life Seems to Speed Up as We Age

 Why does time appear to speed up as we get older? Can we slow it down? Thanks to the National Geographic Channel for sponsoring this video! The new season of Brain Games starts Sunday, February 14th at 9/8c - po.st/90S7Ow Brain Games is an Emmy-nominated TV series that explores the inner workings of the human mind through experiments and interactive games. Did you know it's estimated that you have more than a dozen senses in addition to the standard five? One of those is a sense of time or chronoception. Tune in to the new season of Brain Games to learn about all of your senses, and more, starting Sunday, February 14 at 9/8c References: Ageing and duration judgement: bit.ly/1TRN0cr Nerve conduction velocity slowing with age: bit.ly/23Wq6oE Experiments with rats suggest time perception is distributed across brain: bit.ly/1T6IjdO Time perception with repeated stimuli: bit.ly/1TRNbo5 Energy usage in brain with age: bit.ly/1nXliOU Time perception in moments of fear / danger: bit.ly/1RoK7Ps 1.usa.gov/1TRNa3w bit.ly/1Q8tDvW Attention’s relation to time perception and recollection of perceived time: bit.ly/20odeD8 bit.ly/1TRNfEf

Why Life Seems to Speed Up as We Age

 Před 3 lety

 Why does time appear to speed up as we get older? Can we slow it down? Thanks to the National Geographic Channel for sponsoring this video! The new season of Brain Games starts Sunday, February 14th at 9/8c - po.st/90S7Ow Brain Games is an Emmy-nominated TV series that explores the inner workings of the human mind through experiments and interactive games. Did you know it's estimated that you have more than a dozen senses in addition to the standard five? One of those is a sense of time or chronoception. Tune in to the new season of Brain Games to learn about all of your senses, and more, starting Sunday, February 14 at 9/8c References: Ageing and duration judgement: bit.ly/1TRN0cr Nerve conduction velocity slowing with age: bit.ly/23Wq6oE Experiments with rats suggest time perception is distributed across brain: bit.ly/1T6IjdO Time perception with repeated stimuli: bit.ly/1TRNbo5 Energy usage in brain with age: bit.ly/1nXliOU Time perception in moments of fear / danger: bit.ly/1RoK7Ps 1.usa.gov/1TRNa3w bit.ly/1Q8tDvW Attention’s relation to time perception and recollection of perceived time: bit.ly/20odeD8 bit.ly/1TRNfEf

How Long Will You Live?

 Cell biology gives clues to why we age and lobsters don't. I made another video! The future of energy: bit.ly/1MAiJKm Check out Breakthrough, Sundays at 9/8c on Nat Geo with GE #ad Animations are from Emmy-winning film 'Immortal', reproduced here courtesy of December Media and Genepool Productions (previously Pemberton Films) Check out Immortal here: bit.ly/VeImmortal Find out more about telomeres and telomerase here: bit.ly/WakeTelomeres Special thanks to Dr. Fiona Ginty, Principal Scientist in the Life Sciences and Molecular Diagnostics Group at GE. Her research focuses on imaging different proteins within the cell. It's both a very powerful technique and it's beautiful. Filmed by Raquel Nuno and Vasilios Sfinarolakis Aging makeup by Heather Grippaldi: bit.ly/1Xebikh Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com "Past the Edge" and "Lightless Dawn"

How Long Will You Live?

 Před 3 lety

 Cell biology gives clues to why we age and lobsters don't. I made another video! The future of energy: bit.ly/1MAiJKm Check out Breakthrough, Sundays at 9/8c on Nat Geo with GE #ad Animations are from Emmy-winning film 'Immortal', reproduced here courtesy of December Media and Genepool Productions (previously Pemberton Films) Check out Immortal here: bit.ly/VeImmortal Find out more about telomeres and telomerase here: bit.ly/WakeTelomeres Special thanks to Dr. Fiona Ginty, Principal Scientist in the Life Sciences and Molecular Diagnostics Group at GE. Her research focuses on imaging different proteins within the cell. It's both a very powerful technique and it's beautiful. Filmed by Raquel Nuno and Vasilios Sfinarolakis Aging makeup by Heather Grippaldi: bit.ly/1Xebikh Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com "Past the Edge" and "Lightless Dawn"

Snatoms! The Magnetic Molecular Modeling Kit

 I've created an educational product to help people learn chemistry! You can buy it here: www.snatoms.com

Snatoms! The Magnetic Molecular Modeling Kit

 Před 3 lety

 I've created an educational product to help people learn chemistry! You can buy it here: www.snatoms.com

The Brightest Part of a Shadow is in the Middle

 Why is there a bright spot behind spherical objects? Be the first to find out about new projects: www.veritasium.com Filmed by Nathan Watkins and Raquel Nuno, animation by Meg Rosenburg. Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com 'Scissors' 'Mirage' ' Marty Gots a Plan'. Special thanks to Laura Vican for helping with the experiment. References: www.princeton.edu/~rvdb/images/Questar/PoissonSpot.html Why Toast Lands Jelly-side Down: Zen and the Art of Physics Demonstrations By Robert Ehrlich

The Brightest Part of a Shadow is in the Middle

 Před 3 lety

 Why is there a bright spot behind spherical objects? Be the first to find out about new projects: www.veritasium.com Filmed by Nathan Watkins and Raquel Nuno, animation by Meg Rosenburg. Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com 'Scissors' 'Mirage' ' Marty Gots a Plan'. Special thanks to Laura Vican for helping with the experiment. References: www.princeton.edu/~rvdb/images/Questar/PoissonSpot.html Why Toast Lands Jelly-side Down: Zen and the Art of Physics Demonstrations By Robert Ehrlich

Is Glass a Liquid?

 Stained glass is thicker at the bottom - so is it a liquid? Earth's mantle enables plate tectonics, so is it a liquid? Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Sign up for the mailing list: www.veritasium.com Pitch drop experiment: www.thetenthwatch.com Thanks to Meg Rosenburg for scripting and animation, Raquel Nuno for filming and Aaron White for script consultation.

Is Glass a Liquid?

 Před 4 lety

 Stained glass is thicker at the bottom - so is it a liquid? Earth's mantle enables plate tectonics, so is it a liquid? Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Sign up for the mailing list: www.veritasium.com Pitch drop experiment: www.thetenthwatch.com Thanks to Meg Rosenburg for scripting and animation, Raquel Nuno for filming and Aaron White for script consultation.

The Science of Six Degrees of Separation

 Are all people on Earth really connected through just six steps? There's much more science in this than I initially expected. It turns out ordered networks with a small degree of randomness become small-work networks. This is why your acquaintances turn out to be more important in job searches and finding new opportunities than close friends. DON'T SEND ME AN EMAIL anymore... 1. Do not send it directly to me unless you know me. 2. Send the email to someone you have met IN PERSON and know on a first name basis AND THEY KNOW YOU. 3. Make the subject line 'Six Degrees of Veritasium' 4. Explain that you're trying to get this email to me and ask them to forward it on to me (only if they know me IRL) or someone they know who might know me. 5. If your email reaches me by Sept. 1, 2015 I will email you back and ask for your address so I can send you a postcard. Animations in this video by The Lyosacks: ch-me.org/utitle-TheLyosacks There are some great books on this topic: Duncan Watts, Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, Linkds: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else And here are articles I referred to: Milgram's small world experiment: www.uvm.edu/~pdodds/files/papers/others/1969/travers1969.pdf snap.stanford.edu/class/cs224w-readings/milgram67smallworld.pdf Granovetter, Strength of Weak Ties: sociology.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/the_strength_of_weak_ties_and_exch_w-gans.pdf

The Science of Six Degrees of Separation

 Před 4 lety

 Are all people on Earth really connected through just six steps? There's much more science in this than I initially expected. It turns out ordered networks with a small degree of randomness become small-work networks. This is why your acquaintances turn out to be more important in job searches and finding new opportunities than close friends. DON'T SEND ME AN EMAIL anymore... 1. Do not send it directly to me unless you know me. 2. Send the email to someone you have met IN PERSON and know on a first name basis AND THEY KNOW YOU. 3. Make the subject line 'Six Degrees of Veritasium' 4. Explain that you're trying to get this email to me and ask them to forward it on to me (only if they know me IRL) or someone they know who might know me. 5. If your email reaches me by Sept. 1, 2015 I will email you back and ask for your address so I can send you a postcard. Animations in this video by The Lyosacks: ch-me.org/utitle-TheLyosacks There are some great books on this topic: Duncan Watts, Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, Linkds: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else And here are articles I referred to: Milgram's small world experiment: www.uvm.edu/~pdodds/files/papers/others/1969/travers1969.pdf snap.stanford.edu/class/cs224w-readings/milgram67smallworld.pdf Granovetter, Strength of Weak Ties: sociology.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/the_strength_of_weak_ties_and_exch_w-gans.pdf

Visiting Chernobyl Made Me Think Strange Thoughts...

 I am working on some big new projects I'm excited to share with you! So this video is a little different from most of the others. The channel is an element of truth, after all, not an element of science. This is my truth. It may not be everyone's but that's ok too. Clips included were from: Chernobyl and Pripyat - drone shots from shooting Uranium Obsidian dome, California Panum Crater El Capitan The Pyramids of Giza Toronto buildings The Holocaust Memorial in Berlin Abu Simbel temple at Aswan, Egypt Sydney Harbour Milky way time-lapse from the badlands of South Australia Sunset over Warrnambool, Victoria Big Bang animation courtesy of NASA Sunrise over Bondi Water off New Caledonia Great white sharks in the Neptune Islands, South Australia Crosswalk at Town Hall Sydney EDUtubers at the CH-me EDU summit in San Francisco Concert in Sydney Jetpacking in Western Sydney Vi's triangles at Perimeter Institute, Waterloo Canada Aurora Borealis north of Fairbanks Alaska Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain Hiking with MinutePhysics in Washington State Music Licensed from cuesongs.com "The Secret Tower" by Nicholas O

Visiting Chernobyl Made Me Think Strange Thoughts...

 Před 4 lety

 I am working on some big new projects I'm excited to share with you! So this video is a little different from most of the others. The channel is an element of truth, after all, not an element of science. This is my truth. It may not be everyone's but that's ok too. Clips included were from: Chernobyl and Pripyat - drone shots from shooting Uranium Obsidian dome, California Panum Crater El Capitan The Pyramids of Giza Toronto buildings The Holocaust Memorial in Berlin Abu Simbel temple at Aswan, Egypt Sydney Harbour Milky way time-lapse from the badlands of South Australia Sunset over Warrnambool, Victoria Big Bang animation courtesy of NASA Sunrise over Bondi Water off New Caledonia Great white sharks in the Neptune Islands, South Australia Crosswalk at Town Hall Sydney EDUtubers at the CH-me EDU summit in San Francisco Concert in Sydney Jetpacking in Western Sydney Vi's triangles at Perimeter Institute, Waterloo Canada Aurora Borealis north of Fairbanks Alaska Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain Hiking with MinutePhysics in Washington State Music Licensed from cuesongs.com "The Secret Tower" by Nicholas O

Evolutionarily Stable Strategies ft. Richard Dawkins

 When evolution favours a stable ratio of traits rather than one dominant trait. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Animation by The Lyosacks: ch-me.org/utitle-TheLyosacks Hosting Neil Degrasse Tyson, info and tickets: bit.ly/NDTandVe Aug. 22 in Sydney Aug. 23 in Canberra Special thanks to Richard Dawkins Filmed at Academia Film Olomouc with help from Martyn Marek Music by Kevin MacLeod www.incompetech.com 'Marty Gots a Plan' 'Sing Along with Jim'

Evolutionarily Stable Strategies ft. Richard Dawkins

 Před 4 lety

 When evolution favours a stable ratio of traits rather than one dominant trait. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Animation by The Lyosacks: ch-me.org/utitle-TheLyosacks Hosting Neil Degrasse Tyson, info and tickets: bit.ly/NDTandVe Aug. 22 in Sydney Aug. 23 in Canberra Special thanks to Richard Dawkins Filmed at Academia Film Olomouc with help from Martyn Marek Music by Kevin MacLeod www.incompetech.com 'Marty Gots a Plan' 'Sing Along with Jim'

How to Launch a Nuclear Missile

 What was the procedure to launch a nuclear missile? Uranium premieres: July 28 & 29 on PBS at 10pm ET/ 9pm Central France and Germany: July 31 at 10pm on ZDF/arte Norway: August 5 & 6 at 21:30 on NRK2 Australia: August 9, 16, 23 at 8:30pm on SBS Sweden: TBD Middle East: TBD For more information on other screenings go to facebook.com/uraniumtwistingthedragon www.genepoolproductions.com A big thank you to The Titan Missile Museum, Yvonne and Chuck. www.titanmissilemuseum.org/ Space footage courtesy of NASA

How to Launch a Nuclear Missile

 Před 4 lety

 What was the procedure to launch a nuclear missile? Uranium premieres: July 28 & 29 on PBS at 10pm ET/ 9pm Central France and Germany: July 31 at 10pm on ZDF/arte Norway: August 5 & 6 at 21:30 on NRK2 Australia: August 9, 16, 23 at 8:30pm on SBS Sweden: TBD Middle East: TBD For more information on other screenings go to facebook.com/uraniumtwistingthedragon www.genepoolproductions.com A big thank you to The Titan Missile Museum, Yvonne and Chuck. www.titanmissilemuseum.org/ Space footage courtesy of NASA

Backspin Basketball Flies Off Dam

 How far would a basketball with backspin go? Rotor wing experimental aircraft: ch-me.org/videos/video-Ra8y6gGotwY.html E-ship 1: ch-me.org/videos/video-qJ7haGqXs_E.html Corner kick by Kyle: ch-me.org/videos/video-YIPO3W081Hw.html How Ridiculous World Record Basket: ch-me.org/videos/video-H9SF2YIKRY8.html

Backspin Basketball Flies Off Dam

 Před 4 lety

 How far would a basketball with backspin go? Rotor wing experimental aircraft: ch-me.org/videos/video-Ra8y6gGotwY.html E-ship 1: ch-me.org/videos/video-qJ7haGqXs_E.html Corner kick by Kyle: ch-me.org/videos/video-YIPO3W081Hw.html How Ridiculous World Record Basket: ch-me.org/videos/video-H9SF2YIKRY8.html

Should This Lake Exist?

 The Salton Sea is the largest body of water in California, home to the second most diverse group of birds in America and it exists by accident. Another great video on the Salton Sea: ch-me.org/videos/video-otIU6Py4K_A.html I used archive from this video. Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com ‘Mirage’, ‘Hyperfun’, ‘Marty Gots a Plan’, ‘Past the Edge’

Should This Lake Exist?

 Před 4 lety

 The Salton Sea is the largest body of water in California, home to the second most diverse group of birds in America and it exists by accident. Another great video on the Salton Sea: ch-me.org/videos/video-otIU6Py4K_A.html I used archive from this video. Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com ‘Mirage’, ‘Hyperfun’, ‘Marty Gots a Plan’, ‘Past the Edge’

Chernobyl - What It's Like Today

 This is what a nuclear disaster area looks like. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Broadcast locations and times: North America: PBS, July 28 & 29 @ 10pm ET / 9pm Central Europe: ZDF/arte, July 31 @ 10pm Australia: SBS, August 6, 13, 20 @ 8:30pm EST Not broadcast in your country? Contact your local broadcaster and/or email www.genepoolproductions.com Music by Kevin Macleod incompetech.com 'Come Play With Me' & 'Lost Frontier'

Chernobyl - What It's Like Today

 Před 4 lety

 This is what a nuclear disaster area looks like. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Broadcast locations and times: North America: PBS, July 28 & 29 @ 10pm ET / 9pm Central Europe: ZDF/arte, July 31 @ 10pm Australia: SBS, August 6, 13, 20 @ 8:30pm EST Not broadcast in your country? Contact your local broadcaster and/or email www.genepoolproductions.com Music by Kevin Macleod incompetech.com 'Come Play With Me' & 'Lost Frontier'

Uranium: Twisting the Dragon's Tail

 Uranium is a unique element, used in research, medicine, space travel, and of course weapons. Not broadcast in your country? Contact your local broadcaster and/or email www.genepoolproductions.com Documentary Dates: US: PBS, July 28 & 29 @ 10pm ET / 9pm Central France & Germany: ZDF/arte July 31 @ 10pm Australia: SBS, August 6, 13, 20 @ 8:30pm EST If you're wondering where the title comes from... “A number of ingenious experiments were devised to test the speed of the fission reaction, and the limit was pushed. But even so, I thought it would be very nice to go one step nearer to a real atomic explosion. Dick Feynman, who was present, started to chuckle and to say that this is just like tickling the tail of a sleeping dragon.” Professor Otto R Frisch, January 1969 Physicist, the Manhattan Project.

Uranium: Twisting the Dragon's Tail

 Před 4 lety

 Uranium is a unique element, used in research, medicine, space travel, and of course weapons. Not broadcast in your country? Contact your local broadcaster and/or email www.genepoolproductions.com Documentary Dates: US: PBS, July 28 & 29 @ 10pm ET / 9pm Central France & Germany: ZDF/arte July 31 @ 10pm Australia: SBS, August 6, 13, 20 @ 8:30pm EST If you're wondering where the title comes from... “A number of ingenious experiments were devised to test the speed of the fission reaction, and the limit was pushed. But even so, I thought it would be very nice to go one step nearer to a real atomic explosion. Dick Feynman, who was present, started to chuckle and to say that this is just like tickling the tail of a sleeping dragon.” Professor Otto R Frisch, January 1969 Physicist, the Manhattan Project.

The Truth About Toilet Swirl - Southern Hemisphere

 SYNCHRONIZE WITH DESTIN’S VIDEO: bit.ly/NorthernSwirl Both videos on one page (for desktop): bit.ly/ToiletSwirl Subscribe to Smarter Every Day: bit.ly/SubscribeSED Click to tweet: bit.ly/ToiletSwirlTWT Some notes: We each repeated the experiment 3 times, and got the same results every time. For those of you who might be skeptical, great! A right circular prismatic kiddie pool is only $10 and you can do the experiment for yourself at your latitude. There's really no reason you shouldn't do it for yourself. Veritasium on Instagram: instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: twitter.com/veritasium facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: twitter.com/smartereveryday facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: ch-me.org/utitle-braincraftvideo MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...

The Truth About Toilet Swirl - Southern Hemisphere

 Před 4 lety

 SYNCHRONIZE WITH DESTIN’S VIDEO: bit.ly/NorthernSwirl Both videos on one page (for desktop): bit.ly/ToiletSwirl Subscribe to Smarter Every Day: bit.ly/SubscribeSED Click to tweet: bit.ly/ToiletSwirlTWT Some notes: We each repeated the experiment 3 times, and got the same results every time. For those of you who might be skeptical, great! A right circular prismatic kiddie pool is only $10 and you can do the experiment for yourself at your latitude. There's really no reason you shouldn't do it for yourself. Veritasium on Instagram: instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: twitter.com/veritasium facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: twitter.com/smartereveryday facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: ch-me.org/utitle-braincraftvideo MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...

Ice Spikes Explained

 Why do spikes form on ice cubes? Without them the world would be vastly different. Awesome Jingle by Accent: bit.ly/AccentVe Thanks to Prof. Stephen Morris from UofT: bit.ly/1GFANBE Filmed in part by Martin Marek in Olomouc, Czech Republic Time lapse of a growing ice spike by Lesley Hill, Russ Sampson and Edward Lozowski, with technical help by Kenny Lozowski. Ice spike image by Dan and Lynn Wolaver: wolaver.org/log/09.11.29.htm Concerned ice spike video by rocknut420: ch-me.org/videos/video-GwM0we_t94c.html Earth footage courtesy of NASA: ch-me.org/videos/video-G4BPOEmugtM.html Ice vase image by PgunnG: www.reddit.com/r/pics/comments/1voeqk/so_i_walked_outside_this_morning_and_found_this/ Second ice vase image by A K Haart: akhaart.blogspot.com/2015_01_01_archive.html

Ice Spikes Explained

 Před 4 lety

 Why do spikes form on ice cubes? Without them the world would be vastly different. Awesome Jingle by Accent: bit.ly/AccentVe Thanks to Prof. Stephen Morris from UofT: bit.ly/1GFANBE Filmed in part by Martin Marek in Olomouc, Czech Republic Time lapse of a growing ice spike by Lesley Hill, Russ Sampson and Edward Lozowski, with technical help by Kenny Lozowski. Ice spike image by Dan and Lynn Wolaver: wolaver.org/log/09.11.29.htm Concerned ice spike video by rocknut420: ch-me.org/videos/video-GwM0we_t94c.html Earth footage courtesy of NASA: ch-me.org/videos/video-G4BPOEmugtM.html Ice vase image by PgunnG: www.reddit.com/r/pics/comments/1voeqk/so_i_walked_outside_this_morning_and_found_this/ Second ice vase image by A K Haart: akhaart.blogspot.com/2015_01_01_archive.html

Extended: Beaker Ball Balance Problem

 Watch this first! ch-me.org/videos/video-QD3hbVG1yxM.html Follow on Twitter: twitter.com/veritasium Follow on Facebook: facebook.com/veritasium Special thanks to the Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, especially Gary for helping source the equipment and Raquel for filming.

Extended: Beaker Ball Balance Problem

 Před 4 lety

 Watch this first! ch-me.org/videos/video-QD3hbVG1yxM.html Follow on Twitter: twitter.com/veritasium Follow on Facebook: facebook.com/veritasium Special thanks to the Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, especially Gary for helping source the equipment and Raquel for filming.

What I Wish I Knew When I Was Younger

 Learned helplessness can prevent people from achieving their goals, something I've experienced first hand. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe More walk and talk videos: bit.ly/2Veritasium

What I Wish I Knew When I Was Younger

 Před 4 lety

 Learned helplessness can prevent people from achieving their goals, something I've experienced first hand. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe More walk and talk videos: bit.ly/2Veritasium

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